Architectural structures of lighthouses of Ukraine: from ancient times up to present

Keywords: lighthouses construction in Ukraine, lighthouse, ferroconcrete, lighthouse lamps, structures of lighthouses, lighthouses of Ukraine

Abstract

In the article the author considers peculiarities of structural arrangements of lighthouses in Ukraine since times of the first lighthouse to appear on the territory of Ukraine till present, traces when and how they have been improved and which innovations have been implemented. During the research the author used methods of historicism, chronological sequence of giving the material. The author considers scientist-engineers’ key achievements in building lighthouses in different periods. Special emphasis is laid on key historical events that lead to the development or decay of lighthouses designing. The author describes first lighthouses built by Cossacks, determines major conditions for lighthouses creation and functioning. Short description of all types of lighthouse structures, namely lighthouses made of stone, metal, wood and so on, is given in the article. First metal and ferroconcrete structures of lighthouses are considered in detail. Dr. Pots' tubular pile, one of the highest in Europe unique hyperboloid Stanislav-Adzhigolskiy lighthouses, designed by famous engineer V. Shukhov, Dzharilgach lattice lighthouse designed by G. Eiffel followers, and first in Ukraine ferroconcrete Ozharskiy lighthouse, designed by engineers K. Piatnytskyi and Baryshnikov, known also as designers of first funiculars in Ukraine are among them. These lighthouses became vivid examples of Ukrainian engineering and some of them are protected by the state. Key problems, designing engineers with while looking for the best structural shapes of lighthouses, as well as building materials for them are determined in the article. Great attention was paid to not only strength and stability of the structure under adverse weather conditions, but also to cost-efficiency, accessibility for delivery and mounting and durability of the structure. In addition to that, the author touches upon current problems and perspectives of lighthouses creation in Ukraine, taking into account achievements and miscounts of the past. At the current stage of lighthouses construction, important role has introduction of laser beacons to create laser lighthouses as well as equipping lighthouses with modern monitoring and controlling navigational equipment. Importance of issues related to operational readiness of navigational equipment and introduction of systems used for monitoring navigational situation as well as means of traffic handling are highlighted in the article.

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Published
2018-12-17
How to Cite
Romenska, O. (2018). Architectural structures of lighthouses of Ukraine: from ancient times up to present. History of Science and Technology, 8(2(13), 376-388. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-376-388