History of science and technology http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst <p style="font-size: 11.2px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span id="result_box" class="" style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="en"><span class="" style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">The purpose of the collection of scientific works "History of Science and Technology" is the coverage of topical issues of the history of science and technology, historiography, source study, special historical disciplines, theory and methodology of historical science, history of natural science.</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 16px !important;">Collection of scientific papers "History of science and technology" is addressed to scientists, students of higher educational institutions, transport specialists and everybody interested in key issues on history of science and technology.</p> <p style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 16px !important;">Editorial board does not always share the author’s views displayed in the papers and each author takes personal responsibility for the accuracy, credibility and authenticity of research results described in their manuscripts. All the individual papers are published in author’s edition.</p> <p style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 16px !important;">Collection of scientific papers is published twice a year in Ukrainian, Russian and English.</p> <p style="font-size: 12.2934px !important; line-height: 16px !important;">On the basis of the Order of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine№ 793 on 04.07.2014 the Collection is included to the List of specialized scientific editions of Ukraine in which the dissertations’ results on historical sciences are to be published.</p> State University of Infrastructure and Technologies en-US History of science and technology 2415-7422 <div class="page" style="font-size: 11.2px !important; line-height: 16px !important;"> <div class="item copyright" style="font-size: 10.4px !important; line-height: 16px !important;"><a style="font-size: 10.4px !important;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <p style="font-size: 10.4px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">This work is licensed under a <a style="font-size: 10.4px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> </div> </div> Consultative congresses of the rolling stock and traction engineers: activity оf L. M. Levi http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/292 <p><em>An up-to-date task of modern historical science is a comprehensive study of prominent personalities having made a significant contribution to the formation and development of world science. The article is devoted to the analysis and systematized generalization of a set of scientific facts that objectively characterize various aspects of the activities of outstanding railroad engineer Liudwih Mavrykiiovych Levi in the consultative congresses of the rolling stock department engineers. In the history of science and technology, L.M Levi is known as a prominent locomotive designer, who almost all his life devoted to the development and improvement of locomotives. While preparing this paper chronological, typological, comparative methods of historical knowledge, as well as the classification and systematization of historical sources and bibliographic material which allowed to systematize and critically evaluate the used sources have been applied. Using these methods we highlighted the main point in the current state of studying the topic and the results of other researchers, characterized previous works on this problem and clearly singled out issues not having been sufficiently studied yet. The sources analysis made it possible to give an objective appraisal of the contribution made by L. Levi during his participation in the consultative congress of rolling stock and traction engineers. His role in solving the problems on implementing the “Compound system” on steam engines has been shown. Further development and improvement of which became possible only with the introduction of steam. There was an increase in traction force of locomotives and rolling stock of freight trains. It was found that thanks to the personal contribution of L.&nbsp;M. Levi to the unification of parts for different types of rolling stock, water supply and signaling devices, there was a reduction in the operating costs of railways. This was achieved thanks to the mass production of spare parts, as well as individual locomotives and wagons with the help of specially adapted workshops. The study of transport science through the biography of a scientist, is an integral part of a complex of diverse knowledge, involves the use of a systematic approach as a methodological means of scientific knowledge. It opens up the possibility to combine the structure and content of empirical tools from one point of view with theoretical ideas and requires the consideration of controversial views on the inheritance of national railway scientists and L.M. Levi in particular.</em></p> Yu. A. Berdnychenko H. I. Kyrychenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 284 296 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-284-296 History and general characteristics of the journal “Engineering Matters” http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/293 <p><em>The article analyzes and summarizes the objectivity of reasons and prerequisites for a scientific-technical journal’s appearing on the territory of Transcaucasia at the beginning of the XX<sup>th</sup> century. Having studied a vast range of scientific materials the author has all the grounds to assert that the beginning of the XX<sup> th</sup> century demanded the appearance of a qualitatively new journal, which would keep a close watch on the national and foreign technique development and would promote implementing of new technical ideas in engineering and construction matters as well as participate in training of engineering technical talents, and primarily serve the progress in the field of national engineering. Applying the method of historical and scientific analysis in the article it is highlighted that the journal Engineering has focused constructive, creative, and organizational efforts on uniting around the editorial board the best creative forces. At various times, the editors of the journal were outstanding Russian scientists and engineers who, developing the problems of the country's technical development, sought to combine scientific and technical achievements of that society with achievements in the field of railway engineering and structural mechanics, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the journal and constantly strengthened ties with readers. It is noted that taken as a whole, the materials of the journal “Engineering Matters” vividly reflect the state of Russian and world science and technology of that time, tell us about the actual contribution of scientists, technicians, engineers and practitioners to the treasury of world science, make a decisive step towards bringing science to solving problems of industrialization of the national economy, develop a number of problems of capital industrial and transport construction, mechanization of mining operations, problems of improving the quality of industrial products. It has been proved that the creation of technical periodicals of the Caucasus branch of the Russian Technical Society was dictated by the requirements of Transcaucasia which acutely needed a quick and competent solution of technological challenges in upbringing scientific and technical staff.</em></p> S. V. Hurinchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 297 306 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-297-306 Personalities of domestic aircraft construction: Gindin Gilil Peisakhovich http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/294 <p><em>The publication is devoted to the analysis of the biography and creativity of Gilil Pesakhovich Gindin (1923 – 1998), the designer in the field of domestic aircraft engineering, a specialist in the development of the aircraft wing. In the national history of science and technology, in particular in the aircraft engineering industry, there is almost no information about the biographies, design, technical, engineering or other achievements of those people who under the guidance of O.K. Antonov, created the world-famous domestic transport aircraft. For various reasons, the vast majority of those who directly develop and create airplanes remain in the shadow of the names of general designers - top managers. Therefore, we decided to devote a number of publications to research and description of the domestic aircraft industry personalities. On the basis of personal documents, interview materials of colleagues, contemporaries and information kindly provided by Gilil Peisakhovich’s son, the life path and facts characterizing Gindin G.P. professional achievements during his work at the enterprise, both under the guidance of O.K. Antonov, and afterwards are reproduced. Namely, data on the exploits of G. P. Gindin during the Great Patriotic War are presented, and a list of his military awards is given. Gilil Peisakhovich’s career path is described from a rank-and-file worker, a designer in the wing department to the brigade chief and the head of the KV-22 department. The main design achievements and innovative developments of Gindin G.P. are briefly described. In particular, the fact that with his direct participation the pressed panels of the wing with a length of 28 meters with one ending for the AN-124 "Ruslan" were developed, designed </em><em>and worked out in production, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as a wing, which passed the entire stage of life tests without a single remark and breakdown. For the first time, some&nbsp;little-known&nbsp;data on the activities of the wing department and other features of the creation of the world-famous AN-124 "Ruslan" aircraft are published. In addition, the memoirs of contemporaries about personal, organizational, managerial and business qualities of a famous aircraft manufacturer are given. The publication concluded that Gilil Peisakhovich Gindin undoubtedly made a significant contribution to the development of the domestic aircraft industry, in particular in the field of designing, developing and improving the wing and its mechanization</em>.</p> O. H. Kryvokon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 307 318 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-307-318 The development of Institute of Mechanics of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences named after S. P. Тymoshenko (1941-1968) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/295 <p><em>The chronological sequence of the main stages of the&nbsp; development of&nbsp; Institute of Mechanics of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences named after S.P. </em><em>Тymoshenko</em><em> and process of&nbsp; its scientific directions formation during 1941-1968 are depicted in this article. The data of the structure and trends of the institute activities, theoretical and experimental researches, relations with industry and personnel training are represented.</em> <em>At the end of 1968 at Institute of mechanics the following departments functioned: a rheology (H.M. Savin), thermoelasticity and thermo</em><em>р</em><em>lasticity (A.D. Kovalenko), loudspeakers and stability of continuous environments (O.&nbsp;M.&nbsp;Huz), construction mechanics of thin-walled designs (I. Ya. Amiro), pilot studies of designs (P.S. Polyakov), plastic deformations in designs (A.I. Strelbytska), plasticity of materials (M.I.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Cherniak), computing methods (Ya.M. Hryhorenko), theory of fluctuations (V.O. Kononenko), hydroelasticity (M.O. Kilchevskyi), physics and technology (S.V. Malashenko), experimental methods of a research of fluctuations (M.P. Hotyaintsev), mechanics of composite environments (H.A. Vanin), methods of calculations and designing of products from composite materials (O.A.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Horoshko), modeling of designs from composite materials (V.</em><em>Р</em><em>. Besonov), a research of properties of new materials (I.I. Ishchenko), static durability (F.P. Beliankin), fatigue of designs (M.E. Harf), dynamics and firmness of the movement (A.N. Holubentsev). Over time reorganization and merges of some subsections was carried out. Scientific activity of institute was directed to development of fundamental research of mechanics of the solid deformed body and the general mechanics which have applied value, and participation in the solution of practical tasks. At the same time works were conducted at such main scientific directions: in the field of basic scientific research (the mechanic (statics, dynamics and stability) of elements of designs and materials at complex (power, thermal electromagnetic, etc.) influences; analytical mechanics, nonlinear fluctuations of systems of bodies and multiphase environments) in the field of applied research works (development of methods of calculations and means of a research of objects of the new equipment, development of methods of designing and creation of skilled products from high-strength composite materials, development of methods and technical means of program tests for fatigue of materials and natural elements of designs taking into account features of their operation. The powerful kernel of the Kyiv school of mechanics which concentrated and developed the activity at Institute of mechanics is created.</em></p> M. M. Kryukov O. V. Liashko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 319 327 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-319-327 A scientist in the field of electrical engineering - Professor V.L. Benin (on the 100th anniversary of birth) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/297 <p><em>The work is devoted to the study of life, scientific, methodological and educational activities of the professor of the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute Volodymyr Lvovych Benin. In preparing the article, historical and biographical methods were applied,</em> <em>in order to gradually review the stages of life and evaluate the results of a scientist's activity. </em><em>Н</em><em>istoriographical analysis of publications V.L. Benin in the context of the dynamics of his scientific work</em><em> also was made</em><em>.The analysis of sources and the used archival materials made it possible to objectively evaluate the contribution of the scientist to the development of the industry of automatic regulation, control and statistical power conversion of large power plants, the creation of new measurement circuits and devices while regulating the rotation speed of hydroelectric turbines. It is shown that in the first post-war years his work under the direction of Professor A.L. </em><em>Matvieiev</em><em> in the Kharkov electrical laboratory, which at that time was a part of the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, was of great importance for the restoration of the country's energy potential and led to a few technological developments in the energy industry. The result of this work was the defense of V.L. Benin's dissertation under the guidance of an outstanding scientist and innovator S.</em><em> О</em><em>.&nbsp;Lebediev</em><em>.</em><em> The further scientific activities of V.L. Benin is already in KPI, first of all, as an associate professor of the department of power stations, and then as the head of several important topics and developments in the field of diagnostics and control of diesel generator sets, already at the stage of working on a doctoral dissertation. The talent of V.L. Benin as a teacher and leader, on the example of his students and colleagues, who continued their research, started under his leadership. In the status of the head of the department of </em><em>theoretical framework</em><em> of electrical engineering</em><em>, </em><em>ethodical and pedagogical contribution of Volodymyr Lvovych in the development and formation of basic discipline for all electrical specialties KhPI was reviewed. His many years of teaching experience allowed him to gradually develop this course, improve certain chapter, supplement individual tasks and expand the laboratory practice of the department. It has also been established that thanks to the many years of hard work by V.L. Benin as a part of the scientific and methodical commission of the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR, since 1975, the department of TFEE of KPI has become the main department of the Kharkov University Center of theoretical electrical engineering</em></p> O. V. Lavrinenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 328 339 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-328-339 Historiography and source base development of metrological support in Ukraine (ХХ – beginning of ХХІ centuries) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/298 <p><em>The article is devoted to the determination of the state of scientific elaboration of the problem of forming the system of metrological support in Ukraine during the 20th century - the beginning of the XXI century. The system of metrological support is scientific and organizational bases in combination with technical means, norms and rules is an effective means of achieving the necessary accuracy and quality of measurements in all spheres. During the ХХ century a network of research institutes in the field of metrology has been formed in Ukraine and a number of standards have been created. The most fruitful for the development of the reference base was the period of 1991 – the beginning of the XXI century. Despite a certain amount of scientific literature on metrology and metrological support, the process of deploying research and development of metrology in Ukraine during the ХХ century – beginning of the XXI century not received proper coverage in the historical literature. A classification of the main directions of research problems by subject-thematic basis. It is proved that the first chronological stage of historiography of the selected problem (1900 – the beginning of the twentieth century) was characterized by a small amount of scientific literature on the history of the formation and development of metrological support in Ukraine. The second stage, which began at the turn of 1917 – 1991, was observed a revival of interest in publications on the history of metrology, but the overwhelming majority of them are developments of an anniversary character. At three at the stage (after 1991), scientific works appeared directly devoted to the development of metrological support and the formation of a technical regulation system and the creation of standards in Ukraine. The initial bases of the problem under study are analyzed, the classification of attracted sources is carried out, their information potential is determined. As a result of processing a number of sources from the central and regional archives of Ukraine, a historical reconstruction of the formation of the system of the metrological service of Ukraine during 1901 – 1991 was carried out. As a result of the analysis of the well-known and little-known works of metrologists, museum collections, the article highlights the problem of creating a unique national reference Base Ukraine at the end of the ХХ – beginning of ХХІ centuries. The involvement of the current paperwork of the scientific departments of the NSC “Institute of Metrology”, educational institutions, patent statistical information made it possible to more accurately clarify the reorganization processes that occurred in the context of globalization of the world economy in the sphere of standardization and conformity assessment and integration of Ukraine into the world economy. A number of personal documents are brought to the source base, namely: autobiography, memoirs, correspondence, interview materials.</em></p> I. Yu. Lyashuga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 340 352 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-340-352 Historical analysis of the influence of S. Yu. Witte on the development of rail transport in the Russian Empire http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/299 <p><em>The article is devoted to the activity of Serhii Yuliyovych Witte&nbsp;(Vitte) (1849-1915) – an outstanding statesperson and reformer. The authors make an analysis and evaluation of the activity of S.Yu. Witte focused on the development of rail transport in the Russian Empire in general and of his activity on the post of Minister of Ways of Communication, in particular. The carried studies allowed the authors to systematize and critically assess the sources describing the impact of S.Yu.&nbsp;Witte for the development of rail transport in the Russian Empire, as well as to depict the stages of life and professional activity of S.Yu.&nbsp;Witte in this direction. The authors prove that the main achievements of S.Yu. Witte to develop rail transport in the Russian Empire should be considered the following: the purchase of private railways and the concentration of the main railways network in the hands of the state; the construction of new railways on public funds; the transformation of the railway industry into a stable, profitable one; the settlement and further development of customs and tariff systems; the beginning of the construction of the Great Siberian Route. The article traces the main achievements of S.Yu. Witte as the Minister of Ways Communication of the Russian Empire. In the article it is shown that as a result of the step-by-step introducing of railway control and financial reform, which lasted for a decade, S.Yu. Witte managed to create an effective system of control over the public and private sectors of railways. The scope of the influence of S.Yu. Witte for the economic and political development of the Russian Empire is determined. The literary sources analysis suggests that S.Yu. Witte's policy was subordinated to the sole goal of: the industrialization of the state, the successful development of the economy of the Russian Empire, without affecting the political system, without changing anything in the state administration of the country. The analysis allowed the authors to state that it was S.Yu.&nbsp;Witte who attained coordinated and clear actions of the two most important departments of the Russian Empire – the Ministry of Ways of Communication and the Ministry of Finance – since they were the most interested in the construction of rail transport. Only through the coordination of the activities of these governmental structures, attained by S.Yu.&nbsp;Witte, it became possible to overcome the unprofitability of rail transport, which ultimately helped to stabilize the financial situation of the Russian Empire in general. </em></p> O. Ya. Pylypchuk O. H. Strelko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 353 367 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-353-367 Manufacturing tracked vehicles at the Kharkov Tractor Plant (mid-twentieth – beginning of the twenty-first century) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/300 <p><em>The Kharkov Tractor Plant was and remains the leading center of tractor construction in Ukraine. An important activity of this enterprise was the release of tracked vehicles for both the national economy and military needs. For more than half a century, the plant developed unique tracked vehicles, which were constantly improved thanks to the fruitful activities of the design bureau of the enterprise and individual inventors. This applies not only to civilian tracked vehicles, but also military equipment. </em><em>It is noted that the creation of </em><em>tracked vehicles</em><em> equipment on the territory of Kharkov began before the emergence of the Kharkov tractor plant, but this enterprise played a significant role in the manufacture of this type of machines. During the studied period there was a gradual evolution of samples of </em><em>tracked vehicles</em><em> equipment, its continuous improvement made it possible to reach a sufficiently high level of production. In order to improve detailed analysis tracked vehicles process analysis and comparison of different models of machines. This made it possible to reveal how the technical indicators changed and to trace the gradual evolution of this type of machines. </em><em>In preparing the work, a method of comparative analysis and systematization of available information on the manufacture of tracked vehicles at the Kharkov Tractor Plant was used. The influence of individual designers and inventors on the development and improvement of models of tracked vehicles was also noted.</em><em> Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of engines used for both types of </em><em>tracked vehicles</em><em>, as well as the continuous improvement of agricultural crop tractors. Analysis of some types of engines it possible to investigate what kind engines were more suitable for use in tracked vehicles. It was specified that in order to separate the design and production of equipment for military purposes from agricultural tractors, two separate design bureaus were created. This has allowed to focus on the features of each type of technology.</em></p> N. V. Pisarskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 368 375 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-368-375 Architectural structures of lighthouses of Ukraine: from ancient times up to present http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/301 <p><em>In the article the author considers peculiarities of structural arrangements of lighthouses in Ukraine since times of the first lighthouse to appear on the territory of Ukraine till present, traces when and how they have been improved and which innovations have been implemented. During the research the author used methods of historicism, chronological sequence of giving the material. The author considers scientist-engineers’ key achievements in building lighthouses in different periods. Special emphasis is laid on key historical events that lead to the development or decay of lighthouses designing. The author describes first lighthouses built by Cossacks, determines major conditions for lighthouses creation and functioning. Short description of all types of lighthouse structures, namely lighthouses made of stone, metal, wood and so on, is given in the article. First metal and ferroconcrete structures of lighthouses are considered in detail. Dr.&nbsp;Pots' tubular pile, one of the highest in Europe unique hyperboloid Stanislav-Adzhigolskiy lighthouses, designed by famous engineer V. Shukhov, Dzharilgach lattice lighthouse designed by G.&nbsp;Eiffel followers, and first in Ukraine ferroconcrete Ozharskiy lighthouse, designed by engineers K. Piatnytskyi and Baryshnikov, known also as designers of first funiculars in Ukraine are among them. These lighthouses became vivid examples of Ukrainian engineering and some of them are protected by the state. Key problems, designing engineers with while looking for the best structural shapes of lighthouses, as well as building materials for them are determined in the article. Great attention was paid to not only strength and stability of the structure under adverse weather conditions, but also to cost-efficiency, accessibility for delivery and mounting and durability of the structure. In addition to that, the author touches upon current problems and perspectives of lighthouses creation in Ukraine, taking into account achievements and miscounts of the past. At the current stage of lighthouses construction, important role has introduction of laser beacons to create laser lighthouses as well as equipping lighthouses with modern monitoring and controlling navigational equipment. Importance of issues related to operational readiness of navigational equipment and introduction of systems used for monitoring navigational situation as well as means of traffic handling are highlighted in the article.</em></p> O. V. Romenska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 376 388 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-376-388 Public and scientific-research activity of the professor V.Ye. Timonov http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/302 <p><em>The article highlights the social, scientific, organizational and practical activities of Vsevolod Yevhenovych Timonov – a well-known railway engineer, hydraulic engineer, railway worker and constructor of ports and water routes. The knowledge and experience acquired by national scientists in the United States on the construction of canals and international forums were later successfully used in practical work in tsarist Russia V.Ie. Timonov and V.Ie. Lokhvytskyi participated in the reconstruction of a number of waterways of the country directly by the implementation while dredging works. The experience of foreign countries, primarily the United States, influenced the views of local hydraulic engineers. Massive remedial works, for example, on the Mississippi River, made it possible to increase its depth. That is why V.Ie. Timonov, who was well acquainted with such experience, became a strong supporter of the use of dredging technology on navigable rivers and theoretically proved the possibility and feasibility of using dredgers to provide the necessary depth for navigation. Thus, the foreign experience was directed by local engineers to the practical course of their activities. V.Ie. Timonov had an impeccable record. The diverse activities of the scientist testify the recognition of his authority in the scientific and administrative circles of the Ministry of Communications. Wherever he applied his knowledge and qualifications of an engineer, these were the most important areas of state policy in the field of water transport and hydraulic engineering. V.Ie. Timonov is the founder of the original direction in the construction industry, one of the founders of the doctrine of ports, the founder of the theory of the structure of hydraulic structures, the developer of the doctrine of port infrastructure and improvement of navigability of the great years, the historian of science and technology. Vsevolod Yevhenovych took one of the honorary places in the world of hydraulic engineering, water and partly rail transport. Established on the basis of his numerous and original works, as well as the works of his students, the patterns in the problems developed by him, made a significant contribution to the further development of hydraulic engineering, not only in our country, but also in the world. In the light of his original beliefs, he analyzed the previously accumulated scientific material and showed it in a new and correct coverage. His works, his ideas, theories and views revealed before the hydraulic engineering unprecedented opportunities previously available.</em></p> L. M. Soloviova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 389 405 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-389-405 Academician Vsevolod Аrutiunovych Lazarian (1909‒1978) ‒ scientist, pedagogue, institutor of science and education (Celebrating 110 years since the birth) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/303 <p><em>This article depicts the main stages of life, research and scientific, scientifically-organizational, pedagogic and public activity of the outstanding national scholar in the area of mechanics and railway transport, National Ukrainian prize-winner, academician of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine - Vsevolod Arutyunovich Lazarian. This article indicates that he is the author of more than 300 published works in the field of mechanics- monographs, articles, manuals, and more than 20 invention certificates and patents. The theoretical studies of transitional modes of trains of V. A. Lazarian has always been supported by experimental research in trains and staging in test laboratories for experiments on electronic models of rolling stock.The work of V. A. Lazarian is also essential for practice, in which transition modes of motion of complex mechanical systems are investigated, with elements in the form of capacities, which are partially filled with liquid. The results of studies of transitional modes of trains are described and summarized in the monograph V. A. Lazarian"Investigation of Unspecified Traffic Train Mode", as well as in a number of articles. The great importance to theory and practice had the creation of V. A. Lazarian the theory of stability of motion of rail vehicles. Relying on the results of fundamental research of O. M. Liapunov in the direction of stability of movement, V. A. Lazarian has developed and used a number of methods for studying the stability of the movement of rail carriages. These methods allowed not only to develop engineering methods for assessing the stages of stability of the existing types of rolling stock, but also to put and solve the problem of finding such parameters of vehicles, in which their motion is stable in a given range of speeds. And these studies were supported by well-established experiments. 1972-1973 years under the guidance of V.A. Lazarian tests of a high-speed wagon-lab were carried out, during which for the first time in the former USSR the speed of rail transport was reached 250 km/h. Parameters of the spring suspension of the tested wagon-lab were determined earlier by V.А. Lazarian and his students on the basis of the developed theory of the stability of movement of rail carriage. They were such that the carriage movement, as it turned out from the theory, proved to be stable throughout the range of speeds. There was also a series of special experiments in which a high-speed wagon-lab with some structural changes was used. The results of these experiments convincingly confirmed the main provisions of the theory. </em></p> N. V. Ustiak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 406 416 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-406-416 Influence of the development of graphic techniques on art in Ukraine http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/304 <p><em>The article reveals the importance of the development of graphic techniques as means of artistic and figurative expressiveness in art and design in Ukraine.&nbsp; The study examined some graphic techniques as a means of graphic expressiveness and analyzed the use of these techniques in order to use them in various types of design, as well as to uncover the creative potential of the artist, the graphic designer.&nbsp; It is worth noting that to date there is little research on this issue, and individual studies do not fully reflect the influence of graphic techniques on the development of visual art and design.&nbsp; The purpose of the research is the need to revive and popularize graphic techniques, effectively selecting them as means of graphic expression in art and design.&nbsp; The lack of knowledge of the formation and development of graphic techniques, their great importance and role in asserting the expressiveness of the artistic image determine the relevance of the topic. Analyzed the historiography of the problems and proved that the research of the formation and development of graphic techniques involved several scientists.&nbsp; A great contribution to the development of these issues was made by such specialists as A.A. Leshchinsky, V.A.Favorsky, M.Yu.Miroshina, N.N.Samoylova and others. The research methodology is based on the universal principles of scientific knowledge - historicism and scientific objectivity, as well as on the wide use of comparative historical, systemic methods.&nbsp; Graphics is a type of visual art that uses line, stroke and spot as the main graphic tools, and the compositional nature of the linear-graphic form depends on the material and technique of the performance. &nbsp;Depending on the method of implementation and the possibilities of replication, the graphics are divided into author's (original works of unique graphics), printmaking (types of artistic printing), and massively printed products.&nbsp; It can be argued that the graphics technology has undergone significant changes compared with the time of their formation.&nbsp; At the beginning of the XXI century, their technology becomes more complex and the texture of the print and the color scheme become more complicated.&nbsp; Today uses abstract, futuristic forms, the most inherent improvisational art.&nbsp; The development of graphic techniques in this direction provides bright creative solutions.&nbsp; Modern artists continue to search for new tools and techniques for enriching graphic techniques.&nbsp; Today, easel graphics is not a process of mechanical mass prints, it requires a live direct participation of the creator from the first to the last minute of the birth of the artwork.</em></p> O. L. Khramova-Baranova I. O. Yakovets ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 417 424 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-417-424 Kharkiv period of activity professor P.F. Tushkan (1934-1942) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/305 <p><em>The way of life and creative victories of P.F.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Tushkan, his achievements in the field of formation and development of agrarian science in Ukraine are analyzed. Among them, the Kharkiv period occupies a special place during which the scientist worked as a senior researcher of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (1934-1936), and in 1936 he was freelance to the Ukrainian Research Institute of Socialist Agriculture, where he worked on the scientific task </em><em>«</em><em>Drought and their impact on the crops of the Ukrainian SSR</em><em>»</em><em>. He argued that taking measures to deal with drought is not necessary when it came, but in advance. According to research results P</em><em>.</em><em>F</em><em>.&nbsp;</em><em>Tushkan forms a publication, which, based on the recommendations of the Institute and the </em><em>Р</em><em>CCLA of the Ukrainian SSR, was decided to publish after receiving expert reviews. After their getting, the book was revised, but the Institute was not able to print it. The treatment of Pavlo Fedorovych to the president of VASKHNIL, and later on May 24, 1940, to the Presidium of VUAN, in order to facilitate a review of the book and its publication, were not successful. Almost a year later, on August 20, 1941, the scientist appealed to the leadership of the Ukrainian Research Institute for Socialist Agriculture, with a request to publish his article «Agricultural drought and their study» and at the same time wrote a letter to the academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and VASGNIL O.N.</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Sokolovskyi concerning the promotion of his long-term research work on the study of drought in the press. After studying the publication, Sokolovskyi gave a conclusion to P.F.&nbsp;Tushkan in which he noticed the importance and usefulness of publishing a book for specialists. In October 1941, the scientist appealed to the Ukrainian Research Institute of Socialist Agriculture with a desire to transfer the materials of his work on the study of droughts in the Ukrainian SSR, but as a result of the invasion of the German troops to Kharkov, the Institute did not have time to evacuate and their fate remained unknown. The health of Pavlo Fedorovich has deteriorated significantly owing to the exhaustion of malnutrition, which in turn provoked paralysis of the heart and in the winter of 1942 the scientist died. </em><em>Now, once the pioneering discovery of the world dimension is made by P</em><em>.</em><em>F</em><em>.&nbsp;</em><em>Tushkan, in connection with the fact that droughts in the steppes of Ukraine are of a periodic nature and associated with solar activity, has become axiomatic, but its authorship</em> <em>belongs to others.</em></p> V. O. Volovodovska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 425 435 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-425-435 Natalia Osadcha-Yanata (1891–1982): Pages of Biography http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/306 <p><em>The article is devoted to the study of the life and activities of the wife and friend of the prominent Ukrainian scientist-botanist Oleksandr Aloizovych Yanata – Natalia Osadcha-Yanata. The role of this woman in the development of Ukrainian science, culture and education was shown, as well as its contribution to the study of the problems of the development of the botanical nomenclature and the terminology of medicinal plants. Osadcha-Yanata's scientific work began after graduating from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Kiyv higher women’s courses. The significance of Natalia’s acquaintance with her future husband O.&nbsp;A.&nbsp;Yanata on the formation of her scientific interests and further work in the fields of science is stressed. The data on the activity of a scientist in the commission on the preservation of monuments of nature and antiquity of the Crimean Society of amateurs and researchers of nature, it’s role in the implementation of the Ukrainian language into all spheres of public life is given. The importance of Natalia’s work as the secretary of the terminological commission of the botanical section of the Ukrainian Scientific Society, and then her role in the development of native terminology in academic institutions is emphasized. The periodization of N. Osadcha-Yanata’s scientific activity is proposed, the foreign stage of her work after leaving abroad is outlined. The contribution of N. Osadcha-Yanata to the creation of the manuscript of the dictionary of the botanical nomenclature, as well as the preparation of the fundamental works “Ukrainian Botanical Terminology” and “Ukrainian Botanical nomenclature” are shown. Unfortunately, these researches have not been published. The facts, which prove the devotion of N. Osadcha-Yanata to the scientific work, are presented. So, even after his husband was repressed in 1933, all his work was banned, and Natalia herself was dismissed from work, she continued studying the plant life of Ukraine. This activity Osadcha-Yanata also continued after her forced emigration (first to West Germany, and later to the United States). The article tells about the difficult life of Ukrainian emigrant scholars, as well as their devotion to science, which helped to continue research activities far from the Motherland. In particular, materials collected by N. Osadcha-Yanata in Ukraine were published almost 40 years later as a monograph entitled “Ukrainian Folk Names of Plants”. And many of her manuscripts are still stored in the Archives of Columbia University.</em></p> V. M. Gamaliia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 436 445 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-436-445 The development of Paleozoology Science in the era of the victory of evolutionism (1859-1895) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/307 <p><em>The article is devoted to the analysis of the development of Paleozoology science in the world in the era of the victory of evolutionism (1859-1895). Historical, comparative and biographical methods were used while making this article. It allowed to systematize and critically evaluate the used sources, to compare the assessment of the results of activities of different scientists, and to describe those works that contributed to the development of the science of Paleozoology. An analysis of the sources allowed an objective assessment of the contribution from the representatives of different countries to the development of the science of Paleozoology. The merits of our domestic zoologists in the marked process are shown. The multi-vector activity of the Kovalevskys brothers and M.V. Pavlova was analyzed in the context of the theory of evolution development. Based on the comparison of assessments made by different zoological scientists regarding the development of Paleozoology, the role of these scientists in solving evolutionary issues is shown. It is established that the development of the science of Paleozoology quickly found support from the evolutionists of the second half of the nineteenth century thanks to their personal contribution. This analysis enabled to draw the paths of development in both Paleozoology and Evolutionism in general. The victory of evolutionism was not simultaneous; this victory went a long and painful way of rejection and ruthless criticism. And it was the eminent scientists paleozoologists who played a significant role in the formation and strengthening of evolutionary theory in the world. They are such scholars as: Austrian geologist and paleontologist Melchior Neumayr, French paleontologist and geologist Albert Gaudry, Swiss zoologist and paleontologist Ludwig Rutimeyer, American naturalist, paleontologist and comparative anatomist Edward Соре, American paleontologist Othniel Marsh, German geologist, paleontologist and mineralogist Karl Zittel, American geologist and paleontologist Henry Osborn, and many others. The article analyzes the works of these scientists, thanks to which paleontology was able to separate from geology, since for a long time paleontology was a “helper”, “maid” of geology. This separation later contributed to the division of paleontology into paleozoology itself and paleobotany. The use of the biographical method made it possible to consider the persons of evolutionary paleozoologists as separate individuals, which made it possible to evaluate their contribution to the development of the theory of evolution, to re-evaluate their scientific achievements.</em></p> H. V. Deforzh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 446 461 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-446-461 Algebraic research in the works of members of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society in the first years of its existence http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/308 <p><em>The article is devoted to the review, analysis and systematization of the generalization of materials that characterize the development of algebraic research and teaching of algebra at the beginning of the life of the University of St. Vladimir in Kyiv. Particular attention was paid to the research of the members of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society, as the most active faculty of natural sciences scientists of the time in Kyiv. Historical, systematic and biographical methods were used to prepare the work, which allowed to systematize, classify and evaluate the sources used, compare the evaluation of the results of the members of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society with various authors, highlight the main directions and state of coverage of the topic, as well as the results of other historians of science, review previous work on this issue and clearly identify issues that have not been resolved. The analysis of the sources allowed the author to give an objective assessment of the contribution of members of the society to the development of algebra and methods of teaching it. It was shown that despite the lack of trained specialists and other problems, the level of teaching of this discipline was quite high. Various researches of Kyiv mathematicians are analyzed. It was shown that algebra was one of the most popular directions of the mathematicians of the Kyiv university, although not the most effective one. </em><em>&nbsp;On the basis of comparison of the characteristics of various researchers who studied the work of the Kyiv Physical and Mathematical Society, his role in creating a system of higher mathematical education in the territory of Ukraine is shown. It was established that due to the personal contribution of the members of the society, the foundations for the future Kyiv algebraic school were laid. Detailed works on the algebra of the time printed in Kyiv are considered in detail. It was shown that the society itself became the center around which the most active scholars and teachers met, in which the directions of research of the Kyiv mathematicians were formed. It should also be noted that the company's activities contributed to the birth of the Kyiv</em> <em>Mathematical School.</em></p> T. S. Kletska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 462 474 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-462-474 Achievements of beet industry of Ukraine in system of the collective farm researching work in 1930th-1950th http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/309 <p><em>The development of beet industry of Ukraine in the times of collective farm researching work (1930th-1950th) was investigated in the article with the method of historical-scientific analysis. It has defended that achievements took place on a collective basis in accordance with the implementation of government decisions, addressed to the rural population. It was found out that activity in collective farms </em><em>has been carried out</em><em> at the head of agronomic organizations in the village in the form of houses-laboratories, then houses of agricultural culture and collective farm research stations as leaders of collective research. </em><em>It has found out that research on agrotechnique of sugar beet cultivation were carried out on the most common soils in the sugar beet regions of Ukraine – chernozems.</em><em> These scientific researches were carried by the guidance of research institutes and stations on agrotechnique of cultivation, breeding, dynamics of cultivation of sugar beets for ensuring sugar production in Ukraine and solving the feeding problem in livestock breeding. The crop rotations have also introduced - plans for multi-year use of fields and alternation of cultivated plants as an important step towards improving the activity of the beet-breeding industry. Its aimed at fulfilling the main state tasks of growing beets and other crops, ensuring sustainable and rapid increase of yield, creation of a strong forage base for animal breeding, proper use of labor, tractors, livestock and agricultural machinery of a certain collective farm. It has noted the industrialization of the industry that made it possible to equip the beet farms with tractors and other equipment and the wave of the Stakhanov movement in beet production in the middle of the 1930's. The representation of the achievements in production of beet growing through the constantly-functioning All-Union Agricultural Exhibition and periodicals which represented experience leading figures of agricultural science and practice, news on agrotechnics, mechanization, chemicalization of crops, issues of beet crop rotation, pest control of the crops, organization of labor in beet farms, brigades, houses-laboratories, specific information on training and other problems of collective farms has highlighted.</em> <em>The condition of beet growing in the 1940s-1950s was studied, in particular the influence of the war in 1941-1945 on this branch and its rebuilding. </em></p> S. D. Kovalenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 475 488 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-475-488 Features of development of the agricultural experimental business in Ukraine in years of the Second World War http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/310 <p><em>It is set that an analysis of activity of agricultural research establishments and menage in a period Second World War is a necessity for the objective recreation of the past, correct planning and scientifically-methodical prognostication in agriculture, improvement of integration of scitech in an agricultural production. On the basis of the use of principles of historical authenticity, objectivity, system and complexity, problem-chronologic and comparatively historical methods the features of development of the agricultural experiencental business are found out in Ukraine in the years of Second World War. It is found out, that in a pre-war period agricultural research establishments attained certain successes in working of scientifically-agronomical description of the ground cover of country and on its basis the construction of rational soil tillage systems, chemical melioration and the basic agrotechnical principles that were introduced in the collective farms of the USSR. Certainly, that scientists settled considerable problems both in the direction of the organizationally-economic strengthening of research institutes, experimental stations and fields and in relation to further development of the agricultural experimental business. Scientists gave large value to strengthening of help to the collective farms and state farms of Ukraine in the direction of liquidation of consequences of predatory management of fascist invaders. The employees of research establishments developed effective agrotechnical measures: inculcated scientifically reasonable grain-growing and cultivated crop rotations, as basis of effective agriculture. A large value was given to effective till of soil and bringing of organic and mineral fertilizers. For further renewal stock-raisings in collective farms created a powerful feed base. In this direction the activity the scientists of research establishments sent to working of measures in relation to the improvement of meadows and pastures, applying in industry of productive grass mixtures in the field and forage crop rotations. In a post-war period scientists made great strides in the direction of development of agricultural science, basic from that were: increase of raising the culture of farming and аssistance to the agricultural organs, to the collective farms and state farms in applying</em> <em>introduction of the production of scientific achievements of science and front-rank experience, development of measures on the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures and productivity of stock-raising.</em></p> O. V. Korzun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 489 499 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-489-499 Institutution for limited proprietary rights in scientific works of Kyiv Law Society (Second half of the XIX century) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/311 <p><em>The article highlights the contribution of scientists of the Kyiv Law Society to solving the problems of licit land tenure in the second half of the nineteenth century, which was an example of the Institutution of limited real rights, which is also called the right to other people's things. In the historical context, the basic principles of the activity of the rents law&nbsp; in the Ukrainian lands are reflected, where it was very popular since the fifteenth century and until the end of the nineteenth century, and it was shown that the rents land tenure was for a long time the right to inherit possession and disposal of land belonging to the private owner, for which the latter received an annual unchanging payment – rents. The main stages of the emergence and development of the rents legal relations from the time of the Lithuanian-Ruskoi state and up to the last decades of the existence of the Russian Empire have been considered. It is shown how in the various historical periods at the legislative level, the actual legal relations were maintained in the most important normative legal acts that acted on the territory of modern Ukraine. The main changes in this issue after 1840 are shown, when on the Ukrainian lands the Lithuanian statute was abolished and the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire was introduced, which banned the rents legal relationship. That also led to a number of problems, because Rents land tenure after 1840 was no longer legal regulation. It was traced as members of the Kyiv Law Society raised this issue and initiated its decision at the legislative level. The analysis of scientific works of the members of the Kyiv Law Society has been carried out, which showed that the development of the economy in the conditions of capitalist relations in the second half of the nineteenth century led to the fact that the existing legal relations became unfavorable for landowners. Therefore, they tried to resolve the problem for several decades by their efforts in a situation that required the implementation of a large-scale reform, transferring the existing legal relations to the term lease. The contribution of the members of the KLS to the implementation of the actual reform, in particular, in the work on the "Regulations on the land structure of village perpetual rents in the provinces of West and Biloruskykh" in 1886, which finally abolished the rents legal relations and began the transformation of civil legal relations between large landowners and former rents owners who lived on the lands of the latter, in the conditions of the new socio-economic realities of the country.</em></p> O. O. Pylypchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 500 514 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-500-514 History of formation of positive psychotherapy, as a direction of psychology (second half of XX – early XXI centuries) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/312 <p><em>For the modern historical science, the actual task is to study the history of the becoming of new directions of social and humanitarian sciences, in particular in the field of psychology. The article is devoted to the analysis and systematization of the main events that led to the constitution of positive psychotherapy in an independent direction of modern psychology. Methodological basis of the work are methods of classification and systematization of sources, which allowed to generalize and systematize the main views on the role and place of positive psychotherapy in psychological science, as well as chronological, typological, comparative methods of historical knowledge, which allowed to distinguish the main stages of the development of positive psychotherapy on the path from the author psychotherapeutic method Nossrat Peseschkianto an independent direction of psychology. The analysis of the sources allowed us to give an objective assessment of Nosrat Peseschkian's activity of the German neurologist, psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Iranian origin as the founder of the method of positive therapy and its contribution to the dissemination and popularization of the method. It has been established that thanks to the personal contribution of Nosrat Peseschkian, positive psychotherapy has been recognized by scholars as a separate line of psychology, and it has many followers among practicing psychologists and psychotherapists. Among other areas, positive psychotherapy is positioned as humanistic transcultural psychodynamic therapy, which is based on the positive concept of human nature. It is founded on three main principles: hope, balance, and counseling, and is a conflict-centered, integrative short-term therapy that allows you to address the psychological problems of an individual taking into account the cultural characteristics of patients. At the present stage of development, psychology as a science is characterized by the active integration of psychological theories into psychotherapeutic and counseling practice. Positive psychotherapy should be regarded as an illustrative example of the effectiveness of this trend, and therefore the study of the main stages of the formation of the method and its institutionalization as an independent direction of psychological science is the purpose of this work.</em></p> O. M. Sirenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 515 526 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-515-526 Analysis of creative activities of ukrainian artists in research Roman Bzheskyi http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/313 <p><em>The paper contains a sketch of thinker and publicist Roman Bzheskyi’s life and creative path whose creative contribution was not explored properly. He was a bright representative and notable figure in the history of European scientific thought. However, his name is known only within a narrow circle of experts. Roman Bzheskyi was one of those scholars and public-political figures in the twentieth century whose activity in Soviet times was hushed up, and the study of life and creative heritage has been tabooed for a long time. Mikhnovskyi 's ideology, whom he worked with at the Foreign Affairs Ministry, substantially influenced Bzheskyi’s political views. Their correspondence has been stored in the archives of Warsaw. R. Bzheskyi’s ideology was strengthened particularly by the influence of D. Dontsov's "Nationalism" philosophy that he considered to be the philosophical basis of natural sciences and psychology. The creative work of the scientist consists of criticism and analysis of Ukrainian politicians and artists, whose activities had a significant impact on all spheres of life of Ukrainian society. Perhaps the criticism of Russia has the most important place in R. Bzheskyi’s researches. Besides the matters of Russian state policy, its economic and political control, Bzheskyi in one of the papers concerns the Russian state’s formation. Roman Bzheskyi understood that the Soviet Union peoples’ denationalization was the most important Russian problem at that time. He emphasized that the Kremlin authorities mixed Ukrainian and Moscow history for a long time, so that Ukrainians felt themselves "the sons of a province" and were deprived of their own world outlook and self-identity. Russian language, literature, music and culture as a whole are created by many powerful contributions from outside. In addition, the painful R. Bzheskyi’s topic was not only the political but also the cultural life of Ukraine. He reacted keenly to the world’s underestimating Ukrainian poets, writers, and playwriters. R. Bzheskyi closely connected the analysis and criticism of the works by Ukrainian thinkers, writers or politicians with the cultural and spiritual realm that was the backbone of Ukrainianry. After all, to preserve the past of the Nation for the next generations, we must know the history well.</em></p> Z. P. Sokolivska V. A. Shenderovsky ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 527 535 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-527-535 Scientific studies of V.О. Kudashev on the Preservation of moisture in the soil at the Kiriakov test field (1878–1888) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/314 <p><em>The scientific contribution of рrince V.O.&nbsp;Kudashev on soil moisture preservation, determination aimed at optimizing the physical parameters of the soil, for obtaining the stable harvests of winter crops in conditions of insufficient moisture. A specific plan for agro-measures applying was proposed by V.O.&nbsp;Kudashev&nbsp; and it is predicted&nbsp; an optimizing the physical parameters of the soil, to obtain sustainable winter crops in conditions of insufficient moisture. He noticed that it is not necessary to loose the soil until dry weather is established or the soil does not dry up to the possibility of its loosening. He recommended not to defend after plowing, as well as during rooting it is necessary to do it deeper than the previous one and not use harrowing. When applying the last agro-measure, we should not pay attention to the intensive growth of weeds in fallow, because in years with high rainfall, they mitigate the harmful effects of excess rain on steam. Thus, on the one hand, the consolidation of soil from the rain was mechanically weakened, and this is not much: at 400</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ml of precipitation </em><em>–</em><em> 300 thousand pounds per tithing; but on the other hand, the deposition of soil actually took place. It has been established that the best conditions for preserving soil moisture are achieved in the case of shallow, rather than deep cultivation of soil: </em><em>i</em><em>n spite of the widespread opinion that softly cultivated soils, when adverse conditions occur, spend not only soil moisture but also a lot of useful soil substances</em><em>; to better preserve and to accumulate more moisture, the early harvesting of soil in fallow is too important for obtaining a higher winter crop; black fallow are not the best way to prepare a field for sowing winter; The use of seedlings under winter conditions in summer fallow is associated with additional drying, and therefore can</em><em>’</em><em>t </em><em>be promising for the Poltava province. The researcher warned against too early terms of winter sowing, arguing that overgrown plants can</em><em>’</em><em>t withstand the entire set of climatic problems in autumn, winter and especially early spring. He stressed that the same conditions, the same heat and moisture precisely contribute to the infinite reproduction of various plant parasitic organisms, which negatively affects the quantity and quality of crops.</em> <em>In addition, Prince V.O.&nbsp;Kudashev also found that to maintain soil moisture, all subsequent agrotechnical measures to treat the winter field for the sowing of winter plants subordinate to the principle of preservation of soil moisture, which means </em><em>–</em><em> with the restoration of the burrowing ground of the winter field of its capillary structure, new looseness to destroy the new capillaries of its upper layer, adjusting the onset of the moment of ripeness of the soil to the day of sowing of seeds.</em></p> O. P. Stolyar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 536 544 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-536-544 Activity of Adzhams`ka experimental station in the context of the organization of the scientific support of the north stappe of Ukraine (1912-1932 AD) http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/315 <p><em>In the process of researches, it was established that one of the main premises for the becoming of an agricultural experimental business in the northern part of Kherson province was solving the issue of improving use of lands caused by uncontrolled destruction of virgin lands and non-observance of crop rotations, which affected black soil fertility. Among the main tasks of the Adzhams`ka Experimental Station, which began its activity in 1912, was the search for the best methods of field culture in the conditions of the northern part of the Kherson province. The solution of these problems was carried out by studying the effect of black and cropped fallow on the formation of productivity of grain crops and fodder crops and justifying the optimal time for sowing, seeding rates and applying different doses of organic and mineral fertilizers. It has been established that the distinctive features of activity of the Adzhams`ka Experimental Station from similar research institutions of Ukraine were: a highly specialized areas of ​​researches; a small number of scientific departments and workers; the location of the zone of the northern Steppe of Ukraine on the verge of several large provinces (Kherson, Kiyv, Katery`noslavs`k, Poltava, Podil`s`k), which in the first third of the XX century caused frequent changes in administrative subordination. The scientific work of the Ajamskaya Experimental station was based on the study of the influence on winter, spring and fodder crops of various predecessors, methods and terms of sowing, cropping systems, varietal assortment of agricultural crops. Beside, researches were carried out on the application of organic and mineral fertilizers, were studied the number of little known and infrequent plants , and testing of agricultural machinery and equipment, in particular those produced by the Yelisavetgrad Plant of Elvorti brothers. The main conclusions of the department of field crop cultivation, which were made on the results of the experiments in 1912-1931 became the statement that black fallow was the best way to increase the yield of winter grain crops, despite the fact that the depth of the fallow was not essential for sowing of winter crops, and organic fertilizer was a powerful mean of increasing the yield of agricultural crops. The dissemination and popularization of the research results by the application department of the Adzhams`ka Experimental Station was one of the first steps towards the transfer of agriculture in the region to scientific support.</em></p> G. P. Tomashina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 545 559 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-545-559 Ulisse Aldrovandi’s Museo Naturale and its role in the development of natural history in the Europe of the XVI century http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/316 <p><em>Ulisse Aldrovandi was a famous Italian naturalist, the first full professor in the history of natural sciences, who made a large contribution into the establishment of museums and the science of natural history in Europe. The paper presents detailed information on Aldrovandi’s biography and the tangled path of formation of his scientific interests. A special attention is paid to the little known information on features of Aldrovandi’s natural history collections and unique museum, which were studied by the author personally in the University of Bologna, Italy in 2018. The museum, which was conceived and created by Aldrovandi, has been preserved practically unchanged with only insignificant losses. Collection catalogues, complied by the scientist and analysed by us, show Aldrovandi’s ambition to account, catalogue, and classify available natural items and other objects that, in his opinion, reflect the role of nature in humans’ life. A detailed survey of Aldrovandi’s illustrated multi-volume (400 volumes) encyclopedia, which was based on his collections, is presented in the paper. It is highlighted that, despite Aldrovandi’s progressive views and high level of education, naive interpretations with descriptions of fantastic creatures such as mermaids, sphinxes, dragons and others are given in his works along with scientific facts. Nevertheless, the scientist saw and noted the boundary between empiric investigation of the nature and its symbolic interpretation. Aldrovandi was the first scholar who involved a large deal of original and direct research into natural history and gathered a scientific collection of natural items. The majesty of his plan, the volume of his collections and scientific interests impressed the scientist’s contemporaries, who acclaimed Aldrovandi’s Museo Naturale as “the best cabinet of Europe and the largest micro cosmos of nature” in that time. It is emphasised that Aldrovandi’s natural history collection became part of the social and cultural context of the emergence of natural history as a scientific discipline. The extremely huge role of Aldrovandi’s museum in popularisation is also noted, since it proposed “wisdom” for the spread of scientific information in forms appropriate for sensation at that time. </em></p> O. V. Chervonenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 8 2(13) 560 572 10.32703/2415-7422-2018-8-2(13)-560-572