The impact of decisions of Mining Industrialists Congresses on the Industrial Revolution increasing in Ukraine in the late XIX century
The activity of the mining industry in the South of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was part at that time, is analyzed. It is noted that the rapid development of industry in the Russian Empire after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 opened up opportunities for investors to raise capital. Information is given about why Kharkiv became the center of investment life of mine owners, namely its good geographical location. Data on the number of inhabitants of the city and the number of trading institutions are provided. The stages in the formation of the mining industry of the South of the Russian Empire as a driving force for economic development in Ukraine are highlighted.The causes of weak coal sales from the Donbas and the development of the factory industry of Ukraine in the 1860s are analyzed. It is shown how these issues were resolved. In particular, mining congresses were organized to discuss and resolve these issues.It is shown how the decisions of mining congresses influenced the development of the country's economy at the end of the nineteenth century. Examples of issues discussed at these congresses are given. In particular, the congresses discussed – workers, higher and secondary specialized education, mining credit, insurance, the ratio of the mining industry to zemstvos and land taxation of enterprises of the mining industry, taxes, land relations, postal, telegraph and telephone traffic, passenger traffic in the Southern Russia area, duties, ports, marinas, navigable rivers and canals, shipbuilding and merchant shipping, export of mineral fuel abroad, construction of new railways, etc. It should be noted that the central issue discussed at almost all mining congresses was the question of tariffs, and this was not a coincidence, since it directly concerned the markets for industrialists without whom production could not be developed, and with it the intensification of the industrial revolution. Therefore, this problem, in one form or another, has arisen constantly.Information is provided on the number of such congresses, as well as on the creation of a permanent body, the Council of Miners of the South of the Russian Empire. It analyzes the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of major mining companies in the collusion. The monopolization of the market is considered. Emphasis is placed on the customs policy of the tsarist government. Speculation on temporary fuel difficulties is illustrated. It is noted that at the end of the 1890s, there were especially high rates of development of the Donbas coal industry. Special tariffs for the export of Donetsk coal abroad were introduced. Thus, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the mining and monopolization of the mining industry of the south of the Russian Empire were enlarged and monopolized.
Brivko, N. V. (2004). Stanovlenie ugolnoy promyishlennosti kontsa XIX – nachala XX veka (na primere goroda snezhnoe donetskoy oblasti) [The formation of the coal industry at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century (on the example of the snezhniy city of Donetsk region)] Istorichniy arhIv – Historical archive, 12, 32–38 [in Russian].
Fomin, P. I. (1908). Kratkiy ocherk istorii s'ezdov gornopromyishlennikov Yuga Rossii [A brief outline of the history of mining congresses in southern Russia]. Kharkov: Tipografiya i Litografiya M. Zil'berberg i Synov'ya [in Russian].
Fomin, P. I. (1915). Hornaia y horno-zavodskaia promyshlennost Yuha Rossyy. [Mining and metallurgical industry in the South of Russia. Vol.1, in: The history of mining and metallurgical industries of Southern Russia since the beginning to the eighties of the last century], Kharkov: Tipografiya B. Bengis [in Russian].
Gajko, G. I. & Biletsky, V. S. (2013). Istoriia hirnytstva: Pidruchnyk [Mining History: A Textbook] Kyiv-Alchevsk: Vydavnychyi dim «Kyievo-Mohylianska akademiia», vydavnytstvo «LADO» DonDTU [in Ukrainian].
Gajko, G. I. & Biletsky, V. S. (2016). “Vuhilna lykhomanka” i promyslovyi rozvytok donetskoho baseinu: vytoky, podii, tvortsi ["Coal rush" and the Donets basin industrial development: sources, events, creators]. Istorychni nauky – Historical sciences, 51–57 [in Ukrainian].
Gutnyk, M. V. (2013). Rozvidka vuhilnykh rodovyshch na Ukraini u XVIII – na pochatku XIX st. [Exploration of coal deposits in Ukraine in the 18th – early 19th centuries.]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu «KhPI» Seriia: Istoriia nauky i tekhniky – Bulletin of the National Technical University "KрPI". Series: History of Science and Technology, 48(1021), 52–59 [in Ukrainian].
Krutikov, V. V. (1981). S'ezdyi yuzhnyih gornopromyishlennikov [Congresses of the southern miners]. Istoriya SSSR – History of USSR, 4, 126–135 [in Russian].
Kupriyanova, L. V. (1994). Tamozhenno-promyishlennyiy protektsionizm i rossiyskie predprinimateli (40-80e godyi XIX v.) [Customs and industrial protectionism and Russian entrepreneurs (40-80s of the 19th century)]. Moscow: IRI RAN [in Russian].
McCaffray, Susan P. (1987). Origins of Labor Policy in the Russian Coal and Steel Industry, 1874–1900. The Journal of Economic History, 47(4), 951–965.
Ministerstvo finansov 1802-1902 [Ministry of Finance] (1902). Ch1. Ch2, SPb: Izd-vo Ministerstva finansov [in Russian].
Moshkin, A. N. & Belonozhko, E. P. (2010). S'ezdyi gornopromyishlennikov Yuga Rossii i ih vliyanie na harakter tamozhennyih yi zheleznodorozhnyih tarifov v 1870-1890-e godyi [Congresses of Miners of the South of Russia and their influence on the nature of customs and railway tariffs in the 1870–1890s]. Omskiy nauchnyiy vestnik – Omsk Scientific Herald, 2(86), 44–47 [in Russian].
Potolov, S. I. (1959). Iz istorii monopolizatsii ugolnoy promyishlennosti Donbasa v kontse ХІХ st. [From the history of the monopolization of the coal industry of Donbas at the end of the 19th century]. Iz istorii imperializma v Rossii – From the history of imperialism in Russia, 5–25 [in Russian].
Rofe-Beketova, О. (2019, Dec.12). Kilka shtrykhiv do istorii pro Oleksiia Alchevskoho [A few features of Olexei Alchevsky story]. Istorychna Pravda – Historical truth. Retrieved from https://www.istpravda.com.ua/columns/2019/ 12/12/156664/ [in Ukrainian].
Shandra, I. (2011). Zizdy hirnychopromyslovtsiv Pivdnia Rosii yak forma predstavnytstva interesiv burzhuazii Donbasu ta Prydniprovia [Mining Congresses of Southern Russia as a Form of Representation of Donbas and Pridneprovia] Kraieznavstvo – Local History, 4, 230–237 [in Ukrainian].
Trudi ekstrennogo s'ezda uglepromyishlennikov Yuga Rossii, (1888). Trudyi ekstrennogo s'ezda uglepromyishlennikov Yuga Rossii, byivshego v g. Harkove s 12 po 15 sentyabrya 1888 goda [Proceedings of the emergency congress of coal producers of the South of Russia. Proceedings of the emergency congress of coal producers of the South of Russia, which was held in Kharkov from September 12 to 15]. S'ezd uglepromyishlennikov Yuga Rossii – Congress of coal producers of the South of Russia. Harkov : Tip. gub. pravleniya [in Russian].
Vasileva, E. K. & Pernatev, Yu. S. (2004). 50 znamenityih biznesmenov ХІХ-ХХ veka [50 famous businessman of the ХІХ-ХХ centuries]. Kharkov: Folio [in Russian].
Zhurilo, A. G. (2011). Nekotoryie voprosyi stanovleniya metallurgii Yuga Rossii [Some questions of foundation of South Russia metallurgy]. Vestnik NTU «HPI» – Bulliten of NTU “KhPI”, 9, 52–61 [in Russian].
Zhurilo, A. G. & Zhurilo, D. Yu. (2014). Rol S'ezda Gornopromyishlennikov Yuga Rossii v tehnicheskom obrazovanii [The role of the Congress of Miners of the South of Russia in technical education] Bibliotechka liteyschika – Library of foundryman, 8, 2 [in Russian].
Abstract views: 216 PDF Downloads: 127
Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.