The practice of borrowing foreign projection and technological solutions in the design of electrical machines in Ukraine in the second half of the 1930s
This article, based on the problem-chronological, comparative-historical, historiographical, and source-research methods, as well as the method of actualization, identifies the extent of borrowing foreign design and technological solutions in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic for projecting electrical machines in the second half of the 1930s, as well as the reasons for the absence of unambiguous information in historiography regarding the existence of this phenomenon in the republic at this chronological stage. The publication provides a general assessment of the quality of scientific support for the processes of creating electrical machines, establishes the ways of fulfilling the scientific-technical borrowings that were studied and the dynamics of their development, analyzes their role in the growth of the technical level of products of the Ukrainian electrical machine-building branch. It was found that the level of a scientific escort for electrical machine-building production in Ukraine during the considered period was insufficient for arranging a completely independent design of the entire range of sectoral industrial products, therefore, scientific and technical borrowings remained the only way to maintain the necessary rates of development in the design and production of new types of electrical machines across the entire latitude spectrum of their application. According to the archival documents, it was found that because of the rapid growth of the Soviet Union’s needs at the turn of the 1930s–1940s for electric power equipment, on the one hand, and the improvement of the possibility of organizing its mass production in Ukraine, on the other, the scale of such borrowings grew like an avalanche. At the same time, because of the growth of the scientific-technical potential of the republican electrical machine-building, the nature of the procedure for their fulfillment at the end of the 1930s changed and allowed their mimicry as the exclusively independent achievements of domestic designers. This is how the achievements of Ukrainian electric machine builders were presented to the entire Soviet society during the considered period, which subsequently allowed them to gain a foothold in the relevant historiography, however, the facts and arguments in this publication completely refute this established opinion.
Alexandrov, A. G. et al. (1957). Istoriya energeticheskoy tekhniki SSSR. [History of power engineering of the USSR]. In 4 volumes. Belkind, L. D. et al. (Eds). Vol. 2: Elektrotekhnika. [Electrical engineering]. Moscow, Leningrad: The State energy publishing house [in Russian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2014). Opredelenie urovnia nauchnogo obespecheniia proizvodstva na zavode Russkogo Obshchestva “Vseobshchaia kompaniia elektrichestva” v 1915‒1918 gg. posredstvom nomenklaturnogo analiza vypuskaemoi produktsii. [Determining the level of scientific support for production at the plant of the Russian Society “Vseobshchaia company elektrychestva” in 1915–1918 through nomenclature analysis of maded products]. Vestnik Tomskogo universiteta. Istoriya ‒ Tomsk State University. History, 5(31), 3–38 [in Russian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2015). Orhanizatsiini struktury elektromashynobudivnoi haluzi v Ukrainskii RSR u 1922–1941 rr. [The organizational structure of Electric Machine Industry in the Ukrainian in 1922‒1941 years]. History of Science and Technology, 5(7), 3‒20. Retrieved from https://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/175 [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2016a). Kontseptsiia naukovo-tekhnichnoi polityky v elektromashynobuduvanni Ukrainskoi SRR u period NEPu (1921–1931 rr.). [The concept of scientific-technical policy in the electrical machine building of the Ukrainian SSR during the NEP period (1921‒1931)]. Evropský filozofický a historický diskurz, 2(2), 44–50 [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2016b). Zapochatkuvannia na Kharkivskomu elektromekhanichnomu zavodi seriinoho vyrobnytstva sylovykh chastyn avtomatyzovanykh system upravlinnia artyleriiskym vohnem (1935–1941 rr.). [Foundation for the serial production of power units of artillery fire control systems at the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant (1935–1941)]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho universytetu. Seriia: Istoriia i filosofiia nauky i tekhniky ‒Dnepropetrovsk University Journal: History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, (24), 134–144 [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2017). Uchast Kharkivskoho elektromekhanichnoho zavodu v stvorenni radianskoi zaliznychnoi artylerii (1931–1941 rr.). [Participation of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant in the creation of the Soviet railway artillery (1931–1941)]. Viiskovo-naukovyi visnyk ‒ Military Scientific Journal, (27), 247–256 [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2019a). The Kharkov Electromechanical Plant contribution to the soviet military submarine fleet formation in the 1920‒1941. Colloquium, 11(3), 147–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.34813/08coll2019.
Annienkov, I. O. (2019b). Uchast Kharkivskoho elektromekhanichnoho zavodu v oboronnykh prohramakh Radianskoho Soiuzu v 1920-kh ‒ 1930-kh rokakh. [Participation of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant in the defense programs of the Soviet Union in the 1920s ‒ 1930s]. History of education, science and technique in Ukraine: Materials of the XIV All-Ukrainian Scientific Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists (pp. 285‒288). Kyiv: National Academy Agrarian Science [in Ukrainian].
Annienkov, I. O. (2020a). Cooperation with AEG in 1925–1928 as the first form of scientific-technical borrowings in the electric machine-building industry of the Ukrainian SSR. History of Science and Technology, 10(1(16), 34‒49. https://doi.org/10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-34-49.
Annienkov, I. O. (2020b). Formuvannia pershoi v Ukraini shkoly konstruktoriv elektrychnykh mashyn (1920-i roky) [Formation of the First School of Electric Machine Engineers in the Ukrainian SSR (the 1920s). Eminak: naukovyi shchokvartalnyk ‒ Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (2(30), 135‒145. https://doi.org/10.33782/eminak2020.2(30).414 [in Ukrainian].
Glebov, I. A. (Ed). (1999). Istoriia elektrotekhniki. [History of electrical engineering]. Moscow: Moscow Power Engineering Institute [in Russian].
Gusev, S. A. (1955). Ocherki po istorii razvitiia elektricheskikh mashin [Essays on the history of the development of electrical machines]. Moscow, Leningrad: The State energy publishing house [in Russian].
Kartsev, V. P. (1981). Mikhail Polievktovich Kostenko. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
Martynuk, F. M. (1958). Mashynobuduvannia Ukrainskoi RSR v period sotsialistychnoi industrializatsii [Mechanical engineering of the Ukrainian SSR during the period of socialist industrialization]. Kyiv: Kyiv State University Publishing House [in Ukrainian].
Novikov, M. V. (2006). Inostrannyi kapital v sovetskoi elektrotekhnicheskoi promyhlennosti silnykh tokov formy privlecheniia i rezultaty ispolzovaniia 1920–1932 gg. [Foreign capital in the Soviet electrical industry of heavy currents: forms of attracting and results of use (1920-1932)]. Ph. D. thesis Abstract. Volgograd: Volgograd State University [in Russian].
Sutton, А. С. (1968). Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development (1917–1965). In 3 volumes. Vol. 1: 1917–1930. Stanford: Stanford University.
Sutton, А. С. (1971). Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development (1917–1965). In 3 volumes. Vol. 2: 1930–1945. Stanford: Stanford University.
Suzdaltsev, V. V. et al. (1965). Ocherk istorii Kharkovskogo elektromekhanicheskogo zavoda [Essay on the history of the Kharkov Electromechanical Plant]. In 2 parts. Voznesenskiy, A.A. (Ed). P. 2: 1918–1964. Kharkov: Prapor [in Russian].
The Central State Archive of the Supreme Authority and Administration of Ukraine. (1932). F. r-797, D. 1, C. 194, Ss. 1–4 f.v., dt. 1932. Doklad inzhenera A.Ya Bergera na 1 Vseukrainskom energeticheskom sieezde “Ob issledovatelskikh biuro v elektropromyshlennosti” [Account “On research bureaus in the electrical industry” by engineer A. Ya. Berger at the 1st All-Ukrainian Energy Congress] [in Russian].
The Central State Archive of the Supreme Authority and Administration of Ukraine. (1935). F. r-1252, D. 1, C. 77, Ss. 248–255, dt. 01. January 1935. Svedeniia o nalichii i potrebnosti v inzhenerno-tekhnicheskikh kadrakh KhEMZ. [Information on the availability and need for engineering and technical personnel of KhEMZ] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1924). File [F]. p-15, Description [D]. 1, Case [C]. 26, Ss [Sheets]. 40–41 f.v. [overleaf], dt. 16 March 1924. Otchet o rabote iacheiki zavoda Elektrosila №1 za period s dekabria 1923 g po mart 1924 g. [Report on the work of the cell of the plant Electrosila No.1 for the period from December 1923 to March 1924] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1931). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 47, Ss. 83–89, dt. 15 April 1931). Dogovor Gosudarstvennogo Vsesoyuznogo elektrotekhnicheskogo obiedineniia “VEO” s Elektricheskim Aktsionernym obshchestvom “Metropoliten-Vikkers” v Londone. [Contract of the All-Union Electrotechnical Association “VEO” with the Electric Joint Stock Company “Metropolitan-Vickers” in London] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1934). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 27, Ss. 62–62 f.v., dt. 25 October 1934. Spravka Glavnogo upravleniia energeticheskoi promyshlennosti Narodnogo komissariata tiazheloi promyshlennosti SSSR Kharkovskomu elektromekhanicheskomu zavodu o iego perevode na samostoyatelnyi ustav. [Certificate from the Main Directorate of the Energy Industry of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR to the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant on its transfer to an independent charter] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1936b). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 47, Ss. 133–133 f.v., dt. 25 November 1936. Pismo No. 1977 Glavnogo upravleniia energeticheskogo mashynostroeniia Narodnogo komissariata tiazheloi promyshlennosti SSSR direktoru KhEMZ. [Letter No. 1977 of the Main Directorate of the Power Machine Building Industry of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR to the director of KhEMZ] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1936а). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 47, Ss. 94–96, dt. 31 July 1936. Sluzhebnaia zpiska № 418 n/o tekhnicheskogo direktora i nachalnika biuro mashynostroeniia KhEMZ v Glavnoyie upravleniie energeticheskogo mashynostroieniia Narodnogo komissariata tiazheloi promyshlennosti SSSR. [Service note No. 418 n/o of the technical director and head of the technical bureau for mechanical engineering of the KhEMZ to the Main Directorate of the Power Machine Building Industry of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937). (F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 44, Ss. 167–168, dt. 16 June 1937). Rasporyazheniie zamestitelia nachalnika Glavnogo upravleniya energeticheskogo mashinostroyeniia Narkomata tyazheloi promyshlennosti nachalniku Upravleniya elektropromyshlennosti i direktoru KhEMZ. [Order of the Deputy Head of the Main Directorate of the Power Machine Building Industry of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry to the Head of the Electrical Industry Directorate and the Director of KhEMZ] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937a). F. r-4217, D. 2, C. 26, Ss. 4–6, dt. 13 February 1937. Rezolyutsiia po standartizatsii i elektrifikatsii 2-y konferentsii po morskomu elektrooborudovaniiu. [Resolution on Standardization and Unification of the 2nd Conference on Marine Electrical Equipment] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937b). F. r-4217, D. 2, C. 170. Ss. 90–152, dt. 16. April 1938. Otchet laboratorii spetsialnogo privoda Spetsialnogo byuro Proyektno-tekhnicheskogo otdela KhEMZ ob ispytanii oborudovaniia k silovoi sinkhronnoi peredache zavoda № 205. [Report of the laboratory of a special drive of the Special Bureau of the Design and Technical Department of KhEMZ on testing equipment for a power synchronous transmission of plant No. 205] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937c). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 44, 177 s, dt. 13 January–9 November 1937. Materialy ob oformlenii zarubezhnykh komandirovok. [Materials on registration of foreign business trips] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937d). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 44, Ss. 152–154, dt. 20 September 1937. Pismo zamestitelia nachalnika Glavnogo upravleniia energeticheskogo mashinostroyeniia Narkomata tyazheloi promyshlennosti SSSR direktoru KhEMZ. [Letter from the Deputy Head of the Main Directorate of the Power Machine Building Industry of the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR to the Director of KhEMZ] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937e). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 44, S. 163, dt. 11 July 1937. Rasporyazheniie glavnogo inzhenera KhEMZ nachalniku byuro inostrannoi tekhnicheskoi pomoshchi zavoda. [Order of the chief engineer of KhEMZ to the head of the bureau of foreign technical assistance of the plant] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1937f). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 44, Ss. 165–166, dt. 27 July 1937. Vypiska iz plana inostrannoi tekhnicheskoi pomoshchi na 1937 g. [Extract from the plan for foreign technical assistance for 1937] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1938a). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 47, 179 s., dt. 3 January–27 December 1938. Perepiska s Glavnym upravleniiem energeticheskogo mashinostroieniya o komandirovkakh za granitsu. [Correspondence with the Main Directorate of the Power Machine Building Industry about business trips abroad] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1938b). F. r-4217, D. 5, C. 237, 82 s., 5 January–23 November 1938. Materialy o zarubezhnykh komandirovkakh. [Materials about foreign business trips] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1938c). F. r-4217, D. 5, C. 237, Ss. 58–68, dt. 21 March 1938. Pismo № 539 s zamestitelia direktora KhEMZ v Glavnoe upravlenie energeticheskogo mashynostroieniia Narodnogo komissariata mashynostroieniia SSSR. [Letter No. 539 s of the Deputy Director of KhEMZ to the Main Directorate of the Power Machine Building Industry of the People's Commissariat of Machine Building of the USSR] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1939). F. r-4217, D. 4, C. 2, Ss. 3–7, dt. 11 January 1939. Zaklyucheniie № 86 s na pismo № KO 8603 gruppy konstruktorov zavoda KhETZ na imia Predsedatelia Sovieta Narodnykh Komissarov. [Conclusion No. 86 s on the letter No. KO 8603 of the group of designers of the KhETZ plant addressed to the Chairman of the Soviet of People's Commissars] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1940). F. r-4217, D. 6, C. 3, Ss. 1–12, dt. May 1940. Dokladnaia zapiska o prodelannoi rabote SpetsPTO KhEMZ za period s 1 yanvaria po 1 maia 1940 g. [Report on the work done by SpecPTO KhEMZ for the period from January 1 to May 1, 1940] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1941a). F. r-4217, D. 6, C. 11, 20 s., dt. 30 January–28 June 1941. Perepiska s Glavnym upravleniyem elektromashinostroitelnoi promyshlennosti ob oformlenii komandirovok za granitsu. [Correspondence with the Main Directorate of the Electrical Machine-Building Industry on the registration of business trips abroad] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1941b). F. r-4217, D. 6, C. 13, Ss. 16–19, dt. 7 April 1940. Plan oboronnykh opytno-issledovatelskikh rabot na zavode KHEMZ na 1941 god. [The plan of defense experimental and research works at the KhEMZ plant for 1941] [in Russian].
The State Archive of Kharkiv Region. (1941c). F. r-4217, D. 6, C. 68, Ss. 15–16, dt. 3 April 1941. Instruktsiia po peresmotru assortimenta produktsii, izgotovleniie kotoroi predusmotreno iz defitsitnykh materialov, s tseliu perevoda yeie na zameniteli [Instructions for revising the range of products, the manufacture of which is provided from scarce materials, in order to transfer them to substitutes] [in Russian].
Tverytnykova, O. Ye. (2009). Vnesok uchenykh kharkivskykh Tekhnolohichnoho ta Elektrotekhnichnoho instytutiv u rozvytok elektrotekhnichnoi haluzi Ukrainy (1885–1950 rr.) [Contribution of scientists of Kharkiv Technological and Electrotechnical Institutes to the development of the electrotechnical branch of Ukraine (1885–1950]): Ph.D Thesis. Kharkiv: National Technical University “KhPI” [in Ukrainian].
Abstract views: 188 PDF Downloads: 369
License terms: authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
The scanned copy of the "Agreement” on the authors" copyright transfer on the manuscript publication and the subsequent posting of the paper on the Internet (in * .pdf or * .jpg format) is to be attached to the manuscript of the paper.
By this agreement the author certifies that the submitted material:
- does not infringe the copyright of other persons or organizations;
- was not previously published in other publishing houses and has not been submitted for publication in other editions.
The author passes the editorial board of the journal "History of science and technology" rights to:
- publication of the article in Ukrainian (English and Russian) language and distribution of its printed copy;
- translation of the article into English language (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian language) and distribution of its translated printed copy;
- distribution of the article electronic copy, as well as electronic copy of the article English translation (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian), via any electronic means (placing on the official web-site of the journal, electronic databases, repositories, etc.) printed copy of the translation.
The author reserves the right without the consent of the editorial board and founders:
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part for educational purposes.
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part to write their own dissertations.
- Use the materials of the article for the preparation of abstracts, conference reports, as well as oral presentations.
- Place electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic copy downloaded from the official web-site of the journal) to:
- personal web-resources of all authors (web-sites, web-pages, blogs, etc.);
- web-resources of institutions where authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);
- non-commercial web-resources of open access (for example, arXiv.org).
In all cases, the availability of a bibliographic link to an article or hyperlink to its electronic copy on the official website of the journal is compulsory.