History of science and technology https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">Journal "History of science and technology"<br></span></span></strong></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">Title abbreviation:&nbsp;</span></span></strong><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><em>Hist. sci. technol.</em> <strong>or</strong> <em>HST</em></span></span></span> </span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">ISSN 2415-7430 <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/issn/2415-7430" target="_blank" rel="noopener">(Online)</a>, ISSN 2415-7422 <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/issn/2415-7422" target="_blank" rel="noopener">(Print)</a></span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 11.2px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">Published from the year 2011.</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Founder: </strong><span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine).<br></span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Publisher:</strong> <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine).<br></span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Editor-in-chief: </strong><a title="Pylypchuk O. Ya." href="http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/Page_Editor_in_Chief" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Oleh Pylypchuk</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine).&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Editorial Board:</strong></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="Pylypchuk O. Ya." href="http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/Page_Editor_in_Chief" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Oleh Pylypchuk</a>, <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Doctor of Science</span></span>, Professor (Editor-in-chief), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3173-3373" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Oleh Strelko</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor (Deputy Editor-in-chief), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Berdnychenko Yuliia" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7536-7155" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Yuliia Berdnychenko</a>, PhD,&nbsp; <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Associate Professor</span></span>, (Deputy Editor-in-chief), <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Baichun Zhang" href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=56593822100" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zhang Baichun</a>, PhD, Professor, <a title="Institute for the History of Natural Science Chinese Academy of Sciences" href="http://www.ihns.ac.cn/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span class="st">Institute for the History of Natural Science Chinese Academy of Sciences </span></a>&nbsp;(China);</p> <p><a title="Chrzan Krystian Leonard" href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=6602515990" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Krystian Leonard Chrzan</a>, Doctor of Science, Associate Professor, <a title="Wroclaw University of Science and Technology" href="http://www.pwr.edu.pl" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Wroclaw University of Science and Technology</a> (Poland);</p> <p><a title="Cozzoli Daniele" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6749-8841" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Daniele Cozzoli</a>, Doctor of Science, Associate Professor, <a title="Pompeu Fabra University" href="https://www.upf.edu" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pompeu Fabra University</a>&nbsp; (Spain);</p> <p><a title="Deforzh Hanna" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1114-3205" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hanna Deforzh</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 15.36px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 15.36px !important;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="ru"><span title="Пилипчук О.Я., доктор біологічних наук, професор (головний редактор); "><span class=""><a title="Центральноукраинский государственный педагогический университет имени Владимира Винниченко" href="https://www.cuspu.edu.ua" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 15.36px !important;" lang="en-US">Volodymyr Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian State Pedagogical University</span> </a></span></span></span></span></span></span>(Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Dovhaniuk Stepan" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1320-3192" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Stepan Dovhaniuk</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="V. Lazaryan Dnipro National University of Railway Transport" href="V.%20Lazaryan Dnipro National University of Railway Transport" target="_blank" rel="noopener">V. Lazaryan Dnipro National University of Railway Transport</a> (Ukraine);</p> <p><span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Dvornichenko Andrey" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4813-7340" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Andrey Dvornichenko</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="Saint Petersburg State University" href="https://spbu.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Saint Petersburg State University </a></span></span></span><span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">(Russian Federation);</span></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Fando Roman" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2180-4393" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Roman Fando</a>, <span class="st">Doctor of Science</span>, Senior Researcher, </span><span class="" title=""><a title="S.I.Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences" href="http://ihst.ru" target="_blank" rel="noopener">S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences</a> <span class="st">(Russian Federation);</span><br></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Gutnyk Maryna" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2723-2755" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Maryna Gutnyk</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <a title="The National Technical University &quot;Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute&quot;" href="http://kpi.kharkov.ua" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute"</a> (Ukraine);<br></span></span></p> <p><a title="Hamaliia Vira" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0433-453X" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vira Hamaliia</a>, Doctor of Science, Senior Researcher, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Horban Anatolii" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3396-0898" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Anatolii Horban</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Hurinchuk Svitlana" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3538-2171" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Svitlana Hurinchuk</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Isaienko Svitlana" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1705-8527" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Svitlana Isaienko</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Kasianov Georgiy" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1996-0362" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Georgiy Kasianov</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="Institute of History of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine" href="http://resource.history.org.ua/cgi-bin/eiu/history.exe?&amp;I21DBN=HIST&amp;P21DBN=HIST&amp;S21STN=1&amp;S21REF=10&amp;S21FMT=hist_all&amp;C21COM=S&amp;S21CNR=20&amp;S21P01=0&amp;S21P02=0&amp;S21P03=HIS=&amp;S21STR=198" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span class="st">Institute of History of Ukraine</span>, <span class="st">National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine </span></a><span class="st">(Ukraine);</span></p> <p><span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Khaminov Dmitry" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9992-0856" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dmitry Khaminov</a>, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span class="" lang="ru"><span title="Коробченко А.А., доктор історичних наук, професор; ">Doctor of Science, Professor, </span></span></span></span></span></span></span> <a title="National Research Tomsk State University" href="http://www.tsu.ru/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Research Tomsk State University</a>, (Russian Federation);</span></span></span></p> <p><span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span class="" lang="ru"><span title="Коробченко А.А., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><span class="st"><a title="Krichevsky Sergey" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1094-7770" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Sergey Krichevsky</a>,&nbsp;Doctor of Science, Professor, <span title="Гамалія В.М., доктор історичних наук, с.н.с.; "><span title="Пилипчук О.Я., доктор біологічних наук, професор (головний редактор); "><span title="Бєсов Л.М., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="uk"><span class="" title=""><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><a title="S.I.Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences" href="http://ihst.ru" target="_blank" rel="noopener">S.I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences</a> (Russian Federation);<br></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a title="Lotysz Slawomir" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4426-6401" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Slawomir Lotysz</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="Institute of History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences" href="http://www.ihnpan.waw.pl/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences</a> (Poland);</span></span></p> <p><a title="Massimo Moraglio" href="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2959-4207" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Massimo Moraglio</a>, PhD, Senior Research, <a title="Technical University Berlin" href="https://www.tu-berlin.de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University Berlin</a>&nbsp; (<span class="st">Germany</span>);</p> <p><a title="Müürsepp Peeter" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5515-4918" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Peeter Müürsepp</a>, PhD, Associate Professor, <a title="Tallinn University of Technology" href="https://www.ttu.ee" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Tallinn University of Technology</a> (Estonia);</p> <p><a title="Nursultanova Lazat" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9641-0797" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Lazat Nursultanova</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University " href="http://enu.kz/en/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University</a> (Kazakhstan);</p> <p><a title="Rentetzi Maria" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1940-8116" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Maria Rentetzi</a>,&nbsp; <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Professor, <a title="Technical University Berlin" href="https://www.tu-berlin.de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Technical University Berlin</a>&nbsp; (<span class="st">Germany</span>);</p> <p><a title="Ryzhov Sergii" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3229-1020" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Sergii Ryzhov</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Associate Professor, <a title="Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv" href="http://www.univ.kiev.ua" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv</a> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Salata Halyna" href="http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2673-8463" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Halyna Salata</a>, Doctor of Science, Associate Professor, <a title="Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts" href="http://knukim.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts</a> (Ukraine);</p> <p><a title="Saktaganova Zauresh" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8678-3629" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zauresh Saktaganova</a>, Doctor of Sciences, Professor, <a title="E.A. Buketova Karaganda State University" href="https://ksu.kz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span title="">E.A.</span> Buketova Karaganda State University </a><span class="" title="">(Kazakhstan);</span></p> <p><a title="Slabin Uladzimir" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9156-8598" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Uladzimir Slabin</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Research Associate, <a title="University of Oregon" href="https://www.uoregon.edu/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Oregon</a> (USA);</p> <p><a title="Sorochynska Olena" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2477-1275" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Olena Sorochynska</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Associate Professor, <span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><a title="State University of Infrastructure and Technologies" href="https://duit.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">State University of Infrastructure and Technologies</a></span></span> (Ukraine);</p> <p><span class="" style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;"><span class="" lang="ru"><span title="Скляр В.М., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><a title="Stepanchuk Vadim" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5476-2284" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vadim Stepanchuk</a>, <span title="Сухотеріна Л.І., доктор історичних наук, професор; "><span title="Пилипчук О.Я., доктор біологічних наук, професор (головний редактор); ">Doctor of Science, <span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">Senior Research,</span></span> </span></span><a title="Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine" href="http://www.iananu.org.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine</a> (Ukraine);</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><a title="Vargas Dominguez Joel" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4092-5337" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Joel Vargas Dominguez</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Postdoc researcher, <a title="National Autonomous University of Mexico" href="https://www.unam.mx/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Autonomous University of Mexico</a> (Mexico);</p> <p><a title="Videiko Mykhailo" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8708-0749" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mykhailo Videiko</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor,<span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""> <a title="Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University" href="http://kubg.edu.ua/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University</a> (Ukraine);</span></span></p> <p><a title="White Charles" href="https://www.arbor.edu/faculty/charles-white/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Charles White</a>, <span class="st"><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">PhD</span></span></span>, Professor, <a title="Spring Arbor University" href="https://www.arbor.edu" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Spring Arbor University</a> (USA)</p> <p><a title="Wolfschmidt Gudrun" href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3110-9642" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Gudrun Wolfschmidt</a>, Doctor of Science, Professor, <a title="University of Hamburg" href="https://www.hs.uni-hamburg.de" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Hamburg</a> (<span class="">Germany</span>).</p> <p><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal "History of Science and Technology" is the coverage of topical issues of the history of science and technology, historiography, source study, special historical disciplines, theory and methodology of historical science, history of natural science, history of archeology.</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal </span></span></span> "History of science and technology" is addressed to scientists, specialists and everybody interested in key issues on history of science and technology.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">Editorial board does not always share the author’s views displayed in the papers and each author takes personal responsibility for the accuracy, credibility and authenticity of research results described in their manuscripts.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal </span></span></span> is published twice a year (June and December) in English (<span class="aCOpRe">British English and American English)</span>.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">The journal&nbsp;<strong>History of science and technology</strong> uses software <strong><a title="iThenticate " href="https://www.ithenticate.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">iThenticate</a></strong> (powering <a title="Similarity Check" href="https://www.crossref.org/services/similarity-check/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Similarity Check</strong></a> by <strong><a title="Crossref " href="https://www.crossref.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Crossref</a></strong>) to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>Open-access Statement:</strong> <span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span class="">The journal </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><span id="result_box" class="" style="line-height: 20px !important;" lang="ru"><span style="line-height: 20px !important;">"History of science and technology" </span></span></strong></span>provides immediate <strong><a style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" title="open access" href="http://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/open-access" target="_blank" rel="noopener">open access</a> </strong>to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Full-text access to scientific articles of the journal is presented on the official website in the&nbsp;<strong><a style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;" href="http://www.hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Archives</a>&nbsp;</strong>section.</p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><strong>License terms:</strong> authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><strong><a style="line-height: 20px !important;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY</a></strong></span>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;</p> <p>All marked answers the rules of the Committee on ethics in publications</p> <ul> <li class="show"><a title="Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)" href="http://publicationethics.org/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI)" href="http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI)</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities" href="http://openaccess.mpg.de/Berlin-Declaration" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities</a></li> </ul> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">The journal's Editorial Board has taken measures to ensure high ethical and professional standards based on <a title="Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing" href="https://doaj.org/bestpractice" 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class=""><strong>Phone:</strong> 044-409-24-41</span></span></span></p> <p style="font-size: 15.36px !important; line-height: 20px !important;"><span style="font-size: 15.36px;"><span class="short_text" lang="en"><span class=""><strong>e-mail</strong> <a href="mailto:info@hst-journal.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>info@hst-journal.com</strong></a></span></span></span></p> en-US <div class="page" style="font-size: 11.2px !important; line-height: 16px !important;"> <p style="font-size: 11.2px !important; line-height: 20px !important;">&nbsp;</p> </div> info@hst-journal.com (Oleh Strelko (Олег Григорьевич Стрелко)) Sat, 26 Jun 2021 19:39:08 +0300 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 PREFACE https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/455 <p>In the new issue, our scientific journal offers you thirteen scientific articles. As always, we try to offer a wide variety of topics and areas and follow current trends in the history of science and technology.</p> <p>In the article by Olha Chumachenko, оn the basis of a wide base of sources, the article highlights and analyzes the development of research work of aircraft engine companies in Zaporizhzhia during the 1970s. The existence of a single system of functioning of the Zaporizhzhia production association “Motorobudivnyk” (now the Public Joint Stock Company “Motor Sich”) and the Zaporizhzhia Machine-Building Design Bureau “Progress” (now the State Enterprise “Ivchenko – Progress”) has been taken into account.</p> <p>Leonid Griffen and Nadiia Ryzheva present their vision of the essence of technology as a socio-historical phenomenon. The article reveals the authors' vision of the essence of the technology as a sociohistorical phenomenon. It is based on the idea that technology is not only a set of technical devices but a segment of the general system – a society – located between a social medium and its natural surroundings in the form of a peculiar social technosphere, which simultaneously separates and connects them.</p> <p>Definitely the article by Denis Kislov, which examines the period from the end of the XVII century to the beginning of the XIX century, is also of interest, when on the basis of deep philosophical concepts, a new vision of the development of statehood and human values raised. At this time, a certain re-thinking of the management and communication ideas of Antiquity and the Renaissance took place, which outlined the main promising trends in the statehood evolution, which to one degree or another were embodied in practice in the 19th and 20th centuries. A systematic approach and a comparative analysis of the causes and consequences of those years’ achievements for the present and the immediate future of the 21st century served as the methodological basis for a comprehensive review of the studies of that period.</p> <p>The article by Serhii Paliienko is devoted to an exploration of archaeological theory issues at the Institute of archaeology AS UkrSSR in the 1960s. This period is one of the worst studied in the history of Soviet archaeology. But it was the time when in the USSR archaeological researches reached the summit, quantitative methods and methods of natural sciences were applied and interest in theoretical issues had grown in archaeology. Now there are a lot of publications dedicated to theoretical discussions between archaeologists from Leningrad but the same researches about Kyiv scholars are still unknown</p> <p>The legacy of St.&nbsp;Luke in medical science, authors from Greece - this study aims to highlight key elements of the life of Valentyn Feliksovych Voino-Yasenetskyi and his scientific contribution to medicine.</p> <p>Among the scientists of European greatness, who at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries showed interest to the folklore of Galicia (Halychyna) and Galician Ukrainians, contributed to their national and cultural revival, one of the leading places is occupied by the outstanding Ukrainian scientist Ivan Verkhratskyi. He was both naturalist and philologist, as well as folklorist and ethnographer, organizer of scientific work, publisher and popularizer of Ukrainian literature, translator, publicist and famous public figure. I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Verkhratskyi was also an outstanding researcher of plants and animals of Eastern Galicia, a connoisseur of insects, especially butterflies, the author of the first school textbooks on natural science written in Ukrainian.</p> <p>A new emerging field that has seen the application of the drone technology is the healthcare sector. Over the years, the health sector has increasingly relied on the device for timely transportation of essential articles across the globe. Since its introduction in health, scholars have attempted to address the impact of drones on healthcare across Africa and the world at large. Among other things, it has been reported by scholars that the device has the ability to overcome the menace of weather constraints, inadequate personnel and inaccessible roads within the healthcare sector. This notwithstanding, data on drones and drone application in Ghana and her healthcare sector in particular appears to be little within the drone literature. Also, little attempt has been made by scholars to highlight the use of drones in African countries. By using a narrative review approach, the current study attempts to address the gap above. By this approach, a thorough literature search was performed to locate and assess scientific materials involving the application of drones in the military field and in the medical systems of Africans and Ghanaians in particular.</p> <p>The paper by Artemii Bernatskyi and Vladyslav Khaskin is devoted to the analysis of the history of the laser creation as one of the greatest technical inventions of the 20th century. This paper focuses on establishing a relation between the periodization of the stages of creation and implementation of certain types of lasers, with their influence on the invention of certain types of equipment and industrial technologies for processing the materials, the development of certain branches of the economy, and scientific-technological progress as a whole. The paper discusses the stages of: invention of the first laser; creation of the first commercial lasers; development of the first applications of lasers in industrial technologies for processing the materials. Special attention is paid to the “patent wars” that accompanied different stages of the creation of lasers. A comparative analysis of the market development for laser technology from the stage of creation to the present has been carried out.</p> <p>Nineteenth-century world exhibitions were platforms to demonstrate technical and technological changes that witnessed the modernization and industrialization of the world. World exhibitions have contributed to the promotion of new inventions and the popularization of already known, as well as the emergence of art objects of world importance. One of the most important world events at the turn of the century was the 1900 World's Fair in Paris. Thus, the author has tried to analyze the participation of representatives of the sugar industry in the World's Fair in 1900 and to define the role of exhibitions as indicators of economic development, to show the importance and influence of private entrepreneurs, especially from Ukraine, on the sugar industry and international contacts.</p> <p>The article by Viktor Verhunov highlights the life and creative path of the outstanding domestic scientist, theorist, methodologist and practitioner of agricultural engineering K.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Schindler, associated with the formation of agricultural mechanics in Ukraine. The methodological foundation of the research is the principles of historicism, scientific nature and objectivity in reproducing the phenomena of the past based on the complex use of general scientific, special, interdisciplinary methods. For the first time a number of documents from Russian and Ukrainian archives, which reflect some facts of the professional biography of the scientist, were introduced into scientific circulation.</p> <p>The authors from Kremenchuk National University named after Mykhailo Ostrohradskyi presented a fascinating study of a bayonet fragment with severe damages of metal found in the city Kremenchuk (Ukraine) in one of the canals on the outskirts of the city, near the Dnipro River. Theoretical research to study blade weapons of the World War I period and the typology of the bayonets of that period, which made it possible to put forward an assumption about the possible identification of the object as a modified bayonet to the Mauser rifle has been carried out. Metal science expert examination was based on X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine the concentration of elements in the sample from the cleaned part of the blade.</p> <p>In the article by Mykola Ruban and Vadym Ponomarenko on the basis of the complex analysis of sources and scientific literature the attempt to investigate historical circumstances of development and construction of shunting electric locomotives at the Dnipropetrovsk electric locomotive plant has been made.</p> <p>The next scientific article continues the series of publications devoted to the assessment of activities of the heads of the Ministry of Railways of the Russian Empire. In this article, the authors have attempted to systematize and analyze historical data on the activities of Klavdii Semyonovych Nemeshaev as the Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire. The article also assesses the development and construction of railway network in the Russian Empire during Nemeshaev's office, in particular, of the Amur Line and Moscow Encircle Railway, as well as the increase in the capacity of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The article discusses K.&nbsp;S.&nbsp;Nemeshaev's contribution to the development of technology and the introduction of a new type of freight steam locomotive for state-owned railways.</p> <p>We hope that everyone will find interesting useful information in the new issue. And, of course, we welcome your new submissions.</p> Oleh Pylypchuk, Oleh Strelko, Yulia Berdnychenko Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/455 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Scientific and research work of Zaporizhzhia aircraft engine builders in the 1970’s https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/456 <p><em>O</em><em>n the basis of a wide base of sources, the article highlights and analyzes the development of research work of aircraft engine companies in Zaporizhzhia during the 1970s. The existence of a single system of functioning of the Zaporizhzhia production association “Motorobudivnyk” (now the Public Joint Stock Company “Motor Sich”) and the Zaporizhzhia Machine-Building Design Bureau “Progress” (now the State Enterprise “Ivchenko – Progress”) is taken into account. The directions of research work that were peculiar to the specified period are established. These were inventive activities, development of technological processes, increasing the reliability and durability of gas turbine engines, automation and mechanization of production, cooperation with industry firms in other countries, and cooperation with research institutions. The development of a scientific-theoretical and technical basis for the production of aircraft engines is comprehensively assessed. Its dependence on structural subdivisions, which at the aircraft engine enterprises were the department of scientific and technical information, the Information and Computing Center, the department of patenting, innovation and invention of the plant, was determined. They were engaged in the accumulation, generalization and dissemination among specialists of their own and borrowed experience of both past and present. The activity of the scientific and technical council, which included leading specialists of Zaporizhia aircraft engine companies, was monitored. Factors that contributed to the revival of research in the second half of the 1970’s were identified. Among them, the leading place belongs to the creation and production of D-36 and D-18T aircraft engines. The design advantages of these engines are described. Some shortcomings and miscalculations made during their design are taken into account. Methods and measures aimed at overcoming the difficulties associated with the design, manufacture, operation and repair of aircraft engines are summarized. The research is based on the following methods: actualization, comparative-historical, problem-chronological, multifactor analysis, principles of historicism and objectivity.</em></p> Olha Chumachenko Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/456 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Technology as a socio-historical phenomenon https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/457 <p><em>The article reveals the authors' vision of the essence of the technology as a sociohistorical phenomenon. It is based on the idea that technology is not only a set of technical devices but a segment of the general system – a society – located between a social medium and its natural surroundings in the form of a peculiar social technosphere, which simultaneously separates and connects them. The main objective purpose of the technosphere is to promote the effective rendering of society-generated entropy outwards; it defines the features of the technosphere as a sociohistorical phenomenon.</em> <em>The analogues of such material formations take place also in wildlife (from the spider-web to the beaver dam) but are very few and arise from the implementation of instinctive programs of the species. In a person's consciousness, such programmes are not given by “nature”, they are formed on the basis of “desobjectivation” of technical objects available in society. In the process of “desobjectivation” the essence, the “logic of the subject” becomes the achievement of a person and due to his abilities is filled with new meaning. As a result, the technology is a materially ideal phenomenon: on the one hand, it is a set of technical objects and on the other hand – technical thinking of a person, the highest manifestation of which is technical sciences nowadays.</em> <em>Properly technical objects are created by society to meet the individual and social needs of a person. These are primarily consumption items; due to their manmade nature, the question of production means development arises, which over time becomes increasingly important, especially by virtue of their significant impact on social relations (which in time also require certain technical devices for their implementation). The complex of these devices forms the techno sphere of society as a compound integrity. Not only groups of different in application technical objects become the constituent parts of the technosphere, but also their conglomerates designed to perform certain functions, which, similar to the biological branch, were called techno enosis; in the latter at the account of a peculiar “competition”, the development of these components in particular and the technosphere integrally takes place. However, despite consistency, the technosphere is a subsystem of a society, therefore, there is no perspective of creating certain laws of its development and an appropriate coherent periodization. For this reason, the scientific periodization of the development of technology as such is connected with the purpose of the given research and is defined by it.</em></p> Leonid Griffen, Nadiia Ryzheva Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/457 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Management and communication ideas in the late 17th – early 19th centuries https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/458 <p><em>The article examines the period from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 19th century, when on the basis of deep philosophical concepts, a new vision of the development of statehood and human values raised. At this time, a certain re-thinking of the management and communication ideas of Antiquity and the Renaissance took place, which outlined the main promising trends in the statehood evolution, which to one degree or another were embodied in practice in the 19th and 20th centuries. A systematic approach and a comparative analysis of the causes and consequences of those years achievements for the present and the immediate future of the 21st century served as the methodological basis for a comprehensive review of the studies of that period. The scientific novelty of this study is the demonstration of the theoretical heritage complexity of the Enlightenment for the general history of management and communication ideas. The article presents an analysis of the views and concepts of the late 17th – early 18th century thinkers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, who defend the right to freedom of communication and liberalization of relationships in the system: “person – society – state”, associated with their own understanding of the government role. French enlighteners François Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Jean d'Alembert, Etienne Condillac were much smaller theorists in management and communication issues, but their successful epistolary and encyclopedic communication practice, starting from the third decade of the XVIII century significantly increased the self-awareness of the masses. The influence of their ideas on the possibility of progressive development of social relations, on improving the national states manageability and on how of a new type scientists were able not only to popularize knowledge, but also to practically make it an object of public communication is shown. In this context, the author considers the importance of political and legal communication problems in the vision of Charles Louis Montesquieu and analyzes the republican governance ideas by Jean-Jacques Rousseau as an outstanding figure of the Enlightenment, who attached great importance to the forms and methods of forming of the state governance structures. At the end of the historical period under consideration, a comparative historical analysis of the most significant statements of such thinkers as Immanuel Kant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is presented. These founders of the scientific discourse around the problems of power and state, war and peace, the effectiveness of government and communication in relations with the people laid the enduring foundations of the theoretical argumentation of two opposing views on the cardinal problem of our time – the possibility or impossibility of achieving mutually acceptable foundations of a new world order peacefully, excluding all types of hybrid wars. The general picture of the scientific and technological achievements of this period, influencing the level of understanding of the management and communication functions of the state of that time, is given in comparison with the present.</em></p> Denis Kislov Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/458 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The beginning of the soviet theoretical archaeology: theoretical studies at the Institute of archaeology AS UkrSSR in the 1960s https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/459 <p><em>The article is dedicated to an exploration of archaeological theory issues at the Institute of archaeology AS UkrSSR in the 1960s. This period is one of the worst studied in the history of Soviet archaeology. But it was the time when in the USSR archaeological researches reached the summit, quantitative methods and methods of natural sciences were applied and interest in theoretical issues had grown in archaeology. Now there are a lot of publications dedicated to theoretical discussions between archaeologists from Leningrad but the same researches about Kyiv scholars are still unknown. The archaeological theory includes both generalizations made on the basis of archaeological sources and archaeological methodology. The article emphasizes the history of methodology studies at the IA AS UkrSSR during the mentioned period. The research is based on evidence from the annual reports on a work of the Institute from the Scientific archive of the Institute of Archaeology NASU. According to the documents the theory was mentioned in the early 1950s because of publication of new J. V. Stalin’s works. However, that time as well as at the beginning of the next decade, when works started under three volumes of “The Archaeology of the UkrSSR”, it was written that attention to theoretical issues was focused at the Institute, not enough. At the IA AS UkrSSR discussions on archaeological methodology started in the 1960s when papers on theoretical issues, applying cybernetic, methods of natural sciences and statistical methods into archaeology were regularly presented at sessions of the Academic council. Yu.&nbsp;N.&nbsp;Zakharuk was the most active employee of the Institute who worked in this field. In addition to presentation of papers at conferences, and sessions of the Academic council and publications, he was an executor of the scheduled work ‘Methodological and methodic issues of archaeological science’ in 1968–1970. Also it was planed to publish a book on theoretical issues. In other words, the IA AS UkrSSR was the first archaeological establishment in the USSR where the work on archaeological methodology was scheduled. According to circumstances this work had not been completely finished but the Ukrainian scholar was invited to hold the position of deputy director at the Institute of Archaeology AS USSR in Moscow. Despite a skeptical attitude to the theory among most Soviet archaeologists Yu.&nbsp;N.&nbsp;Zakharuk was able to intensify the work on theoretical issues in Soviet archaeology. A separate theoretical session, which was organized by him at the Plenum of the IA AS USSR in Moscow in 1972, might be considered as an initialization of theoretical archaeology as a new sub-discipline in the USSR.</em></p> Sergii Paliienko Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/459 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The legacy of Saint Luke (Valentin Felixovich Voyno-Yasenetsky) to medical sciences https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/435 <p><em>Saint Luke, Archbishop of Simferopol and Crimea (1877‒1961), was born Valentin Felixovich Voyno-Yasenetsky in Kerch, Crimea. He served as an outstanding physician and Academic Professor of Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery at Medical School of Tashkent University. He worked extensively on the fields of surgery, regional anesthesia, pyogenic infections, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, oncology, orthopedics, otorhinolaryngology, gynecology, urology, and dentistry, often under difficult circumstances. He performed a wide variety of operations, from minor outpatient procedures to extremely complicated ones, followed by extensive inpatient management and treatment of ailing individuals. He published numerous research articles and books. His most acclaimed monograph entitled “Essays on the surgery of pyogenic infections” (“Sketches of purulent surgery”), focused on the broad field of surgery with special reference to the pyogenic infections and served as a reference tool and guide book for the next generations of physicians. The Stalin Prize was the highest professional honor awarded to Valentin Felixovich Voyno-Yasenetsky by the Soviet state in recognition of his contribution to science. Voyno-Yasenetsky was a blessed physician who had a major influence on both patients and colleagues, due to his fundamental ethical principles and values based on Christian beliefs. His life and scientific work have been an example of the practical unity of scientific truth and religious faith. He was ordained to the diaconate and priesthood, until he elevated to the ranks of Bishop and Archbishop. He was arrested and subsequently exiled for his religious beliefs and his glorification by the Orthodox Church as Saint Luke was held in Russia in 2000, as a recognition of God’s holiness manifesting in his life. </em><em>Saint Luke </em><em>received an honorable place in the history of Medicine and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The present study aims to highlight key elements of his life and his scientific contributions.</em></p> Hercules Sakkas, Panagiota Spyropoulou Copyright (c) 2021 History of science and technology http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/435 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 17:30:32 +0300 I. H. Verkhratskyi (1846–1919): at the origins of Ukrainian natural science https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/461 <p><em>Among the scientists of European greatness, who at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries showed interest to the folklore of Galicia (Halychyna) and Galician Ukrainians, contributed to their national and cultural revival, one of the leading places is occupied by the outstanding Ukrainian scientist Ivan Verkhratskyi (in some other sources – Verkhratsky). He was both naturalist and philologist, as well as folklorist and ethnographer, organizer of scientific work, publisher and popularizer of Ukrainian literature, translator, publicist and famous public figure. I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Verkhratskyi was also an outstanding researcher of plants and animals of Eastern Galicia, a connoisseur of insects, especially butterflies, the author of the first school textbooks on natural science written in Ukrainian. The scientist also wrote poetry and translated from foreign languages. The article covers the life and scientific and pedagogical activities of I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Verkhratskyi – one of the founders of Ukrainian natural science, who made a significant contribution to the development of Ukrainian natural terminology and nomenclature, the author of the first textbooks on botany, zoology, mineralogy. The authors believe that I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Verkhratskyi can be considered one of the founders of Ukrainian scientific terminology in Natural Science, and today his works in this area remain relevant. These works are also valuable from the historical and cognitive points of view as one of the sources for studying the process of formation of the Ukrainian literary language and scientific and natural terminology. I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Verkhratskyi devoted himself to the establishment of the Ukrainian literary language, its scientific and journalistic backgrounds, and made a significant contribution to lexicography, dialectology, and schooling. Based on the scientific publications and memoirs of his colleagues and students, the authors have recreated the main stages of his biography and considered his professional career. His activity in the field of formation of natural science terminology have been considered in detail. Dialectological materials of the scientist and researcher I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Verkhratskyi are still actively used to study the Galician and Transcarpathian dialects. His achievements as a scientist, teacher and popularizer of science has been summarized.</em></p> Liudmyla Vaniuha, Yaroslava Toporivska, Oksana Hysa, Iryna Zharkova, Mykola Bazhanov Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/461 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Historicizing medical drones in Africa: a focus on Ghana https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/462 <p><em>While the genesis of the drone technology is not clear, one thing is ideal: it emerged as a military apparatus and gained much attention during major wars, including the two world wars. Aside being used in combats and to deliver humanitarian services, drones have also been used extensively to kill both troops and civilians. Revolutionized in the 19th century, the drone technology was improved to be controlled as an unmanned aerial devices to mainly target troops. A new emerging field that has seen the application of the drone technology is the healthcare sector. Over the years, the health sector has increasingly relied on the device for timely transportation of essential articles across the globe. Since its introduction in health, scholars have attempted to address the impact of drones on healthcare across Africa and the world at large. Among other things, it has been reported by scholars that the device has the ability to overcome the menace of weather constraints, inadequate personnel and inaccessible roads within the healthcare sector. This notwithstanding, data on drones and drone application in Ghana and her healthcare sector in particular appears to be little within the drone literature. </em><em>Also, few attempts have been made by scholars to highlight the use of drones in African countries. By using a narrative review approach, the current study attempts to address the gap above. Using this approach, a thorough literature search was performed to locate and assess scientific materials that focus on the application of drones in the military field and in the medical systems of Africa and Ghana in particular. With its sole responsibility to deliver items, stakeholders of health across several parts of the world have relied on drones to transport vital articles to health centers. Countries like Senegal, Madagascar, Rwanda and Malawi encouraged Ghana to consider the application of drones in her mainstream healthcare delivery. Findings from the study have revealed that Ghana’s adoption of the drone policy has enhanced the timely delivery of products such as test samples, blood and Personal Protective Equipment to various health centres and rural areas in particular. Drones have contributed to the delivery of equity in healthcare delivery in Ghana. We conclude that with the drone policy, the continent has the potential to record additional successes concerning the over-widened gap in healthcare between rural and urban populations.</em></p> Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Razak Mohammed Gyasi, Benjamin Dompreh Darkwa Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/462 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The history of the creation of lasers and analysis of the impact of their application in the material processing on the development of certain industries https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/463 <p><em>The paper is devoted to the analysis of the history of the creation of the laser as one of the greatest technical inventions of the 20th century. This paper focuses on establishing a relation between the periodization of the stages of creation and implementation of certain types of lasers, with their influence on the invention of certain types of equipment and industrial technologies for processing the materials, the development of certain branches of the economy, and scientific-technological progress as a whole. In preparing the paper, the generally accepted methods, which are widely used in the preparation of historical research works, have been applied: the historical method – for the study and interpretation of the texts of primary sources and the search for other evidence used for research, as well as for the presentation of historical events associated with the development of laser technology; the historical-genetic method – for studying the genesis of specific historical phenomena and analyzing the causality of changes in the development of laser technology; the historical-critical method – for displaying cause-and-effect relationships, reconstructing events that influenced the development of laser technology; the method of historical periodization. The variety of different possible options for the use of lasers did not allow placing all the collected materials within the framework of one paper, and therefore, the authors have decided to dwell on the facts, which, in the opinion of the paper’s authors, are the most interesting, significant, poorly studied, and little known. The paper discusses the stages of: invention of the first laser; creation of the first commercial lasers; development of the first applications of lasers in industrial technologies for processing the materials. Special attention is paid to the “patent wars” that accompanied different stages of the creation of lasers. A comparative analysis of the market development for laser technology from the stage of creation to the present has been carried out. It has been shown that the modern market for laser technology continues to develop actively, as evidenced by the continued stable growth of laser sales over the past 10 years. This indicates that the demand for laser technology is inextricably linked with the development of high technology production and scientific-technological progress. The analysis has shown that recently, the trends in the use of laser technology have changed; in particular, their industrial and medical applications are decreasing, while there is an increase in their use in the fields of sensor production and communication.</em></p> Artemii Bernatskyi, Vladyslav Khaskin Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/463 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Representatives of the sugar industry of the Russian Empire at the World's Fair in Paris in 1900 https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/464 <p><em>Nineteenth-century world exhibitions were platforms to demonstrate technical and technological changes that witnessed the modernization and industrialization of the world. World exhibitions have contributed to the promotion of new inventions and the popularization of already known, as well as the emergence of art objects of world importance. One of the most important world events at the turn of the century was the 1900 World's Fair in Paris. Participation in the World's Fair was not the first experience of this kind of activity for sugar growers in the Russian Empire. Most of them were members of the Kyiv branch of the Russian Technical Society, which in turn took the most active part in the work of blighty and international industrial exhibitions, receiving high awards. The main sugar enterprises were concentrated on the territory of modern Ukraine in the possession of several large companies owned by Tereshchenko, Kharitonenko, Khanenko, Brodskyi, Simirenko, Yakhnenko and others. The Russian sugar industry occupied a prominent place at the World's Fair in Paris in 1900, as its share in world sugar production was 17%, and the area of beet crops, it was ahead of all other countries (in 1900 sugar beets were sown 548,796 hectares). The exposition testified to this powerful development of the industry. At the World's Fair in 1900, Russia's sugar industry was housed in the Palace of Agriculture and was represented in the pavilions by well-known sugar firms, such as the Department of Land (Timashiv Beet Sugar and Refinery), I.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Kharitonenko and his son; brothers Lazar and Lev Izrailevich Brodskyi; O.&nbsp;N.&nbsp;Tereshchenko, heirs of F.&nbsp;A.&nbsp;Tereshchenko; the Tereshchenko brothers, the Botkin brothers (Novo-Tavolzhanskyi sugar factory); joint-stock companies of sugar and refineries: “Constance”, “Germanov”, “Gmina Lyshowiche”; E.&nbsp;A.&nbsp;Balasheva (Mariinskyi Sugar Plant of Kyiv Province), H.&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Balakhovski (Mariinskyi beet-sugar and refineries of the Kursk province). A characteristic feature of the sugar industry was that they mainly represented family businesses based on strong family ties, ethno-cultural and religious values. In addition, they intertwined the functions of owners and managers. Thus, the author tries to analyze the participation of representatives of the sugar industry in the World's Fair in 1900 and define the role of exhibitions as indicators of economic development, to show the importance and influence of private entrepreneurs, especially from Ukraine, on the sugar industry and international contacts.</em></p> Olga Gaidai Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/464 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Contribution of Professor K. G. Schindler (1869–1940) in formation of agricultural mechanics, theory and practice of testing of the agricultural machines and tools in Ukraine https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/465 <p><em>The article highlights the life and creative path of the outstanding domestic scientist, theorist, methodologist and practitioner of agricultural engineering K.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Schindler, associated with the formation of agricultural mechanics in Ukraine. The methodological foundation of the research is the principles of historicism, scientific nature and objectivity in reproducing the phenomena of the past based on the complex use of general scientific, special, interdisciplinary methods. For the first time a number of documents from Russian and Ukrainian archives, which reflect some facts of the professional biography of the scientist, were introduced into scientific circulation. The main directions of fruitful pedagogical and scientific activities of K.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Schindler, key segments of his creative search, which determined the further development of agricultural engineering, his leadership in the scientific community were described. It was proved that Professor K.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Schindler has the primacy in founding the Station of Testing for Agricultural Machines and Tools at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, which provided students of agronomic and mechanical faculties with the opportunity to get acquainted with the existing types and designs of tillage machines, systematically test its research methods. In addition, the station carried out scientific work on the study of certain issues of agricultural mechanization, development of methods and devices for research of agricultural machinery and implements. The seven functions of the agronomic-type research station developed by scientists for the first time in Europe at the beginning of the last century have become a reference point for many generations of researchers of agricultural machinery. K.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Schindler was the first in the world to theoretically substantiate the need to improve the design of tillage equipment depending on soil and climatic conditions, made a significant contribution to the theory of soil deformation with the shelf of the plow body. In addition, he improved the Sakka dynamometer, developed a control dynamometer to check traction dynamometers and other devices, improved existing and developed new designs of tillage machines. K.&nbsp;G.&nbsp;Schindler was the first in Ukraine to teach a course in agricultural engineering.</em></p> Victor Verhunov Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/465 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Theoretical and practical aspects of the identification of the bladed weapon on the example of the SG 98/05 bayonet to the Mauser rifle based on metal science research https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/466 <p><em>The article examines the studies of the bayonet fragment with severe damages of metal found in the city Kremenchuk (Ukraine) in one of the canals on the outskirts of the city, near the Dnipro River.</em> <em>Theoretical research to study blade weapons of the World War I period and the typology of the bayonets of that period, which made it possible to put forward an assumption about the possible identification of the object as a modified bayonet to the Mauser rifle has been carried out. Metal science expert examination was based on X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine the concentration of elements in the sample from the cleaned part of the blade.</em> <em>Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the blade was made of hardened carbon steel alloyed with silicon, chromium, manganese, nickel and copper.</em> <em>Measure results of the chemical composition of the object correspond to steel for castings of grade 55L with an average blade hardness of 42 HRC.</em> <em>Manufacturing technology of the casting corresponds to the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century with the use of converter production.</em> <em>The bayonet blade was subjected to strengthening heat treatment in the form of hardening and medium tempering.</em> <em>Metallographic analysis showed that the research object of blade fragment suffered corrosion cracking between crystals or along the body of grains, indicating a long stay in silty deposits.</em> <em>The identification of the research object has been carried out using applied technologies based on visual inspection with a description of the state of conservation and comparison with the results reflected in scientific periodicals; metal science expertise; determination of weight and size characteristics and their compliance with the original, including experimental reconstruction, which identifies the preserved fragment with the original drawing at the control points.</em> <em>A comparison of the chemical composition of the blade steel and the “Haenel” steel, differing in concentration and additional alloying elements has been made.</em> <em>The remains of the royal monogram imprint of the stamp and the absence of the regimental stamp have become the basis for searching through catalogs of registered bayonets.</em> <em>This allowed the identification of the object under study as part of the German imperial modified bayonet model 1898/1905 for the Mauser rifle, which was manufactured in the period from 1915 to 1918.</em> <em>Prospects for further research are seen in an increase in the number of metal science examinations for more accurate identification of discovered specimens.</em></p> Volodymyr Maslak, Yevhenii Lashko, Olga Chencheva Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/466 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Development and construction of shunting electric locomotives at Dnipropetrovsk electric locomotives plant (1960's – 1970's) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/467 <p><em>In the article on the basis of the complex analysis of sources and scientific literature the attempt to investigate historical circumstances of development and construction of shunting electric locomotives at the Dnipropetrovsk electric locomotive plant has been made. It was found that during the 1960s and 1970s, the team of designers of the Dnipropetrovsk plant, having strong research and production potential, at the request of the Ministry of Railways of the USSR developed and built unique samples of shunting electric locomotives of the VL41 and VL26 series to meet the needs of Soviet main-line railways with modern high-tech electric vehicles. It is proved that in the absence of thorough experience and, accordingly, the possibility of a rapid technological breakthrough in the development of main-line locomotives, during the experimental operation of shunting electric locomotives VL41 and VL26, several design shortcomings were identified, which led to their further use exclusively on the house tracks of enterprises, and designers of Dnipropetrovsk plant later focused on the development and construction of traction units for industrial application commissioned by the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR. At the same time, the construction of the main-line railway equipment to the order of the Ministry of Railways allowed the staff of the enterprise to gain valuable experience, which was later used in the implementation of the renewal program of rolling stock of Ukrzaliznytsia. Although today the Dnipropetrovsk plant is in decline, the analysis of historical circumstances of formation and design and technological heritage of electric locomotive construction in Ukraine is of fundamental importance both in the general perspective of the development of domestic transport engineering, and the railway industry in particular. Further study of the history of Dnipropetrovsk electric locomotive plant requires clarification of the historical circumstances of institutionalization of the Special Design and Technology Bureau of the enterprise from the creation of industrial electric locomotives and traction units to the development and re-equipment of main traction rolling stock and specialized repair equipment within the state enterprise “Ukrainian Research Design Institute of Electric Locomotive Engineering”.</em></p> Mykola Ruban, Vadym Ponomarenko Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/467 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Analysis of Klavdii Semyonovich Nemeshaev’s activities as the Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/468 <p><em>The article continues the series of publications devoted to the assessment of activities of the heads of the Ministry of Railways of the Russian Empire. In this article, the authors attempt to systematize and analyze historical data on the activities of Klavdii Semyonovich Nemeshaev as the Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire. There are numerous biographical studies devoted to K.&nbsp;S.&nbsp;Nemeshaev, but little is known about his activities as a minister, and to date the data are scattered and not systematized. The analysis of archival materials, scientific publications, memoirs of Nemeshaev's contemporaries and colleagues allowed us to conduct a detailed assessment of his activities and ministerial policy. It has been found that despite his short term of office, Nemeshaev's consistent policy and extensive managerial experience allowed him to carry out two significant reforms in a short time. The first one involved redistribution of the state-owned railway lines between separate local administrations and merging them into larger groups, which was important in terms of improving their operations and facilitating the cost efficiency, as well as speeding up freight traffic. In opinion of the authors of this article, another important achievement of Nemeshaev as the Minister of Railways was the establishment in 1906 of the central, local and district committees regulating mass transportation of goods. This was the first centralized measure aimed at managing the rolling stock. Nemeshaev's extensive managerial experience, high erudition and energy also led to prominent outcomes in some other areas of the Ministry operation. Attempts were made to create syndicates of shipowners in river transport. Modernization of river and sea vessels was carried out. Works on projects for the development of the Northern Sea Route has begun. The article also assesses the development and construction of railway network in the Russian Empire during Nemeshaev's office, in particular, of the Amur Line and Moscow Encircle Railway, as well as the increase in the capacity of the Trans-Siberian Railway. It has been found out that K.&nbsp;S.&nbsp;Nemeshaev paid great attention to various social aspects of railway employees’ activities. The article also highlights the legislative policy of the Ministry of Railways of that period. Nemeshaev's participation in the preparation of the French scientist’s Paul Pelliot and the Russian officer’s Carl Gustaf Mannerheim joint trip to China has been analyzed. Due to the mass replacement of light and worn-out rails on state-owned railways with heavier ones and the need to discharge a significant number of steam locomotives built in the 1850s and 1860s, an introduction of more powerful steam locomotives was expedient. The article discusses K.&nbsp;S.&nbsp;Nemeshaev's contribution to the development of technology and the introduction of a new type of freight steam locomotive for state-owned railways. Nemeshaev's political views have also been assessed.</em></p> Oleh Strelko, Oleh Pylypchuk Copyright (c) https://hst-journal.com/index.php/hst/article/view/468 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300