Ceramics of Halychyna in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Scientific and professional schools. Technologies. Personalities.
An analysis of numerous artefacts of the first third of the 20th century suggests that the production of many varieties of art-and-industrial ceramics developed in Halychyna, in particular architectural ceramic plastics, a variety of functional ceramics, decorative tiles, ceramic tiles, facing tiles, etc. The artistic features of Halychyna art ceramics, the richness of methods for decorating and shaping it, stylistic features, as well as numerous art societies, scientific and professional associations, groups, plants and factories specializing in the production of ceramics reflect the general development of this industry in the first half of the century and represent the prerequisites the emergence of the school of professional ceramics in Halychyna at the beginning of the 20th century. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the formation and development of scientific and professional schools of art-and-industrial ceramics of Halychyna in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The research methodology was chosen, in accordance with the specific factual material, the goals and objectives set in the work, developed on the basis of a systematic approach and the principle of historicism, using the method of complex art analysis, synthesizing the research capabilities of comparative historical, functional, typological research methods. The principle of consistency assumed the consideration of certain issues, in accordance with the sequence of processes that took place in such a popular variety of professional decorative applied art as art ceramics. Due to this approach, the authors tried to focus on a detailed elucidation of the ways of building professional creativity in an inextricable relationship, taking into account the characteristics of a certain material, the needs of appropriate material support, and the establishment of technological processes. Furthermore, such a presentation of the paper material has provided a clearer indication of the possibilities and prospects for the development of the artistic ceramics art. In the process of work, the authors were aware that all the problems related to the art of the first half of the 20th century, including the development in the production of art ceramics in Halychyna, are only at a certain stage of thorough study. That is why this work is one of the stages on this path. In this regard, this study was interpreted by the authors not as one that should finally exhaust the chosen topic, but on the contrary – the work should create an opportunity for further more detailed study of individual phenomena, the work of artists, or the analysis of groups of specific pieces of art.
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