The front line transporter as the embodiment of the USSR military doctrine in the middle of the 20th century
The paper based on a source analysis of the history of creation, design, and production of LuAZ-967, LuAZ-967M, against the background of the processes of implementing projects of small tactical high mobility wheeled vehicles for the armies of European countries, shows that the developing, testing, and commissioning a front line transporter became a deepening of the process of motorization of the Soviet army. The designs of similar vehicles have been analyzed. An attempt to assess the degree of uniqueness of the front line transporter design and its place in the history of technology, as well as its potential as a reminder of science and technology has been made. The experience of using various civilian and military vehicles in the army required the creation of a special small transporter. In each of the countries, developing their designs, embodying new original or time-tested ideas, ones developed vehicles both for the army and for separate armed forced formations. Features of the automotive industry of the countries were reflected in the design of army vehicles. The works and operation Volkswagen Type 82, Volkswagen Schwimmer Type 166, DKW Munga, Volkswagen Type 181 in the armed forced formations in Germany had a significant impact on the spread of the concept of an army small transporter. In France, production of a licensed sample of Willys and the original Citroën Méhari was launched. The Steyr-Daimler-Puch vehicle (Austria) has become one of the most original, successful developments of a small transporter for difficult operating conditions. The development of a front line transporter in the USSR fully corresponded to the challenges of the time and it was carried out through similar stages. The first transporter projects developed by the Scientific Automotive Institute used heavy motorcycle engines mastered in production. It was the lack of the necessary engine for the vehicle that was the main reason for the long proof of the project. Only after the involvement of the designers of the automobile plant in Zaporizhzhia and the installation of units of the mass-produced ZAZ vehicle in the transporter made it possible to prove the design and to master small-scale production. The use of the most powerful engine of a production vehicle, which would correspond to the concept of a small army vehicle, had enabled to master mass production for the army and the development of vehicles for the civilian market. An analysis of the front line transporter design, its systems, compared with its foreign counterparts, suggests that it is a Soviet refinement of the concept of a small army vehicle, a more specific means directly for the battlefield. At the same time, it was developed taking into account foreign developments and similar designs, imitating individual designs, adapting to the capabilities of the USSR automotive industry.
Akppwiki (2018). Transportеr peredneho kraia (TPK) dlia cheho on bуl sdelan y kakye u neho preymushchestva [Front line transporter (FLT) for what it was made and what its advantages it has]. Retrieved from https://akppwiki.ru/transportyor-perednego-kraya-tpk-dlya-chego-on-byl-sdelan-i-kakie-u-nego-preimushhestva.html/ [in Russian].
Aleksandrov, D. (2020, June 24). Trofeinyi avtopark SSSR. Kakye mashyne vezly iz Hermanii [Trophy fleet of the USSR. What vehicles were brought from Germany]. Retrieved from https://www.autonews.ru/news/5ef216c59a79475d1da4878b/ [in Russian].
All Oldschool (2020, October 19). Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP 1972-gо goda [1972 Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP] Retrieved from https://www.drive2.ru/c/572481895674154366/ [in Russian].
Bathory (2016, June 04). LuAZ-967 – transporter peredneho kraia (TPK) [LuAZ-967 – front line transporter]. Retrieved from http://azov-off-road.com.ua/luaz-967-transporter-perednego-kraya-tpk/ [in Russian].
Censor (2018, October 26). 93-tia OMB otrymala na ozbroiennia vsiudykhody dlia perevezennia boiovykh moduliv “Stuhna” [The 93rd separate mechanized brigade received all-terrain vehicles for transporting “Stuhna” combat modules]. Retrieved from https://censor.net.ua/ua/photo_news/3092999/93tya_omb_otrymala_na_ozbroyennya_vsyudyhody_dlya_perevezennya_boyiovyh_moduliv_stugna_fotoreportaj [in Ukrainian].
Channel 5. (2014). Batalion “Myrotvorets” otrymav armiiskyi vsiudykhid [The “Myrotvorets” Battalion received an army all-terrain vehicle]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqaoteNGyJQ [in Ukrainian].
Citroën Origins (n. d.). Citroën Méhari – virtual'nyj muzej legendarnyh avtomobilej [Citroën Méhari – virtual museum of legendary vehicles]. Retrieved from https://www.citroenorigins.ru/ru/cars/mehari [in Russian].
Dvorzhak, R. (2020, July 14). Sovetskyi avtomobyl dlia upravlenyia iz polozhenyia lezha [Soviet vehicle for driving from a prone position]. Retrieved from https://www.maximonline.ru/guide/auto/_article/sovetskii-avtomobil-dlya-upravleniya-iz-polozheniya-lezha/ [in Russian].
Fedorov, Ye. (2020a, March 1). Mekhanicheskie muly. Transportery peredneho kraya Sovetskoi Armii [Mechanical mules. Front line transporters of the Soviet Army]. Retrieved from https://topwar.ru/168251-mehanicheskie-muly-transportery-perednego-kraja-sovetskoj-armii.html [in Russian].
Fedorov, Ye. (2020b, March 9 ). Transportery peredneho kraya: ot Zaporozhya do “Heoloha” [Front line transporters: from Zaporizhzhia to the “Geologist”]. Retrieved from https://topwar.ru/168758-transportery-perednego-kraja-ot-zaprozhja-do-geologa.html [in Russian].
Goll, S. (2003). ZF Friedrichshafen AG – Technologieführerschaft als Markenwert. In B. Gottschalk, R. G. Kalmbach (Eds.), Markenmanagement in der Automobilindustrie (pp. 453–477). WiesbadenGabler Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-92081-2_20 [in German].
Griffen, L. O., (Ed.). (2014). Aktualіzatsіya naukovo-tehnichnoi spadschini v pamiatkoohoronnii ta muzeynii diyalnosti [Actualization of scientific and technical heritage in memorial and museum activities.]. Kyiv: The Center of Monument Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and UTOPIK (Ukrainian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments) [in Ukrainian].
Homutinkin, V. M., & Trigub, A. N. (1989). Avtomobyl LuAZ 969M; ustroistvo, tekhnycheskoe obsluzhyvanie. [LuAZ 969M vehicle; arrangement, maintenance, repair]. Moscow: Transport [in Russian].
Honcharova, O., Pustovalov, S. (Eds.). (2019). Vstup do muzeieznavstva i pamiatkoznavstva [Introduction to museology and monument studies]. Kyiv: Lira-K [in Ukrainian].
Kanunnikov, S. (2013, May). Unter i korol [Unter and king]. Off-Road-Drive, (5). Retrieved from http://www.off-road-drive.ru/archive/87/Unter_i_korol/ [in Russian].
Karpov, V. V. (2014). Dosvid aktualizatsii viiskovo-tekhnichnoi spadshchyny v pamiatkookhoronnii ta muzeinii diialnosti [Experience in actualization of military-technical heritage in memorable and museum activities]. Muzeina sprava ta osvita v Ukraiini: Materialy naukovo-praktychnoï konferentsiï – Proceedings of the scientific and practical conference Museum and Education in Ukraine (pp. 65–69). Kyiv: National Academy of Guidelines of Culture and Art Retrieved from https://dspace.nau.edu.ua/handle/NAU/52298 [in Ukrainian].
Kharuk, A. (2019). Sdelano v Ukraine [Made in Ukraine]. Kharkiv: Folyo [in Russian].
Kochnev, E. (2017, July 23). Boevye “Zaporozhtsy” i sekretnye voennye vezdekhody LuAZa [Combat “Zaporozhtsy” and LuAZ’s secret military all-terrain vehicles]. Retrieved from https://avtovod.com.ua/news/750413159-boevye-zaporozhcy-i-sekretnye-voennye-vezdehody-luaza-foto.html [in Russian].
Kuts, K. (2018, May 08). Khorek, brat Volynianki: Retro-test VW Iltis [Ferret, Volynyanka’s brother: VW Iltis Retro-test.] Retrieved from https://auto.ria.com/uk/news/auto/228016/khorek-brat-volynyanki-retro-test-vw-iltis.html [in Russian].
Long, B. (2016). Mercedes G-Wagen: 1979 to 2015. Poundbury: Veloce Publishing Ltd.
Niedermeyer, P. (2010, April 28). Curbside Classic: VW Type 181 “Thing” Retrieved from https://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2010/04/vw-type-181-thing/.
Polazhynets, O. (2019, July 11). Voennye korny, evropeyskaya sborka y peredniy privod: mify i fakty pro LuAZ 969M [Military roots, European assembly and front-wheel drive: myths and facts about LuAZ 969M]. Retrieved from https://www.kolesa.ru/article/voennye-korni-evropjskaya-sborka-i-perednij-privod-mify-i-fakty-pro-luaz-969m [in Russian].
Ryabinin, M. (2020). Zhyvoi predstavytel sovetskoi voennoi makhyny [A living representative of the Soviet military colossus]. Retrieved from http://offroadclub.ru/faq/history/91913.html [in Russian].
Skomorokhov, R. (2018, July 10). Rasskazy ob oruzhii. Samodvyzhushchayasya pushka SD-44 [Tales of weapons. Auxiliary-propelled gun SD-44]. Retrieved from https://topwar.ru/144123-rasskazy-ob-oruzhii-samodvizhuschayasya-pushka-sd-44.html [in Russian].
Varfolomeev, G. (2021). Muzei utrachennykh vidov. Evropeiskie nasledniki Jeep [Museum of lost species. European successors to Jeep]. Retrieved from https://4x4.media/59703-dalnie-rodstvenniki-evropejskie-nasledniki-jeep.html [in Russian].
Voenteh (n. d.). Lehkaia mashyna “Citroën Mehari Arms” [“Citroën Mehari Arms” light vehicle]. Retrieved from http://voenteh.com/boevye-mashiny/legkie-mashiny/legkaya-mashina-sitroen-meari-arms.html [in Russian].
Volkswagen Kübelwagen (n. d.). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_K%C3%BCbelwagen
Volkswagen Schwimmwagen (n. d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_Schwimmwagen
Abstract views: 34 PDF Downloads: 10
License terms: authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
The scanned copy of the "Agreement” on the authors" copyright transfer on the manuscript publication and the subsequent posting of the paper on the Internet (in * .pdf or * .jpg format) is to be attached to the manuscript of the paper.
By this agreement the author certifies that the submitted material:
- does not infringe the copyright of other persons or organizations;
- was not previously published in other publishing houses and has not been submitted for publication in other editions.
The author passes the editorial board of the journal "History of science and technology" rights to:
- publication of the article in Ukrainian (English and Russian) language and distribution of its printed copy;
- translation of the article into English language (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian language) and distribution of its translated printed copy;
- distribution of the article electronic copy, as well as electronic copy of the article English translation (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian), via any electronic means (placing on the official web-site of the journal, electronic databases, repositories, etc.) printed copy of the translation.
The author reserves the right without the consent of the editorial board and founders:
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part for educational purposes.
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part to write their own dissertations.
- Use the materials of the article for the preparation of abstracts, conference reports, as well as oral presentations.
- Place electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic copy downloaded from the official web-site of the journal) to:
- personal web-resources of all authors (web-sites, web-pages, blogs, etc.);
- web-resources of institutions where authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);
- non-commercial web-resources of open access (for example, arXiv.org).
In all cases, the availability of a bibliographic link to an article or hyperlink to its electronic copy on the official website of the journal is compulsory.