The establishment of the Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute in the context of modernization
The article examines the history of establishment of the Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute in the broad context of modernization processes. The history of the Practical Technological Institute in Kharkiv is considered in the context of socio-economic changes in the South of the Russian Empire, primarily in the "Ukrainian provinces", in the last third of XIX – early XX centuries. The methodological basis of the article is the modernization approach. Changes that took place in the Russian Empire in the last third of the XIX – early XX century are considered as a modernization movement. Modernization is understood as a complex number of transformations that society is undergoing on the path of development from traditional agricultural to urban and industrial. We proceed from the fact that modern society of that time was aware of the speed of industrial production, the need for qualified engineering personnel. The training of such personnel required the opening of local higher education institutions. The processes of industrialization, migration and urbanization, due to the modernization theory, were the main components of social development in the XIX century. The approach chosen by the authors allowed to analyze the formation of higher technical institutions in the Russian Empire, on the example of the Kharkiv Practical Institute of Technology, within these changes. The approach within the new imperial history enabled us to take into account the socio-political subtext of the situation and the decisions that contributed to the establishment of technical universities in the south of the empire. An important aspect of our article is the European context. We investigated the general tendencies of opening similar to Kharkiv educational institutions. We can see certain commonalities, which allows us to explore the problem more deeply. We came to the conclusion that, the emergence of a higher technical educational institution ‒ Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute, in Kharkiv was due to the demand of local elites, which was met by the highest bureaucracy of St. Petersburg, as well as the situation in the city itself. This compromise did not cancel the rivalry, both at the highest bureaucratic level – the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of National Education, and at the regional level, in particular Kharkiv university elite and the inspirers of the idea of a separate technical institution.
Ahlström, G. (1978). Higher technical education and the engineering profession in France and Germany during the 19th century. Economy and History, 21(2), 51‒88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00708852.1978.10418955
Aksakov, I. S. (1858). Issledovaniye o torgovle na ukrainskikh yarmarkakh. [Study on trade at Ukrainian fairs]. Sankt-Peterburg : tip. Imp. Akad. nauk. [in Russian].
Bagaley, D. I., & Miller, D. P. (1993) Istoriya goroda Kharkova za 250 let ego sushchestvovaniya (1655 – 1905). [History of the city of Kharkov for 250 years of its existence (1655 ‒ 1905)]. Vol. 2. Kharkov: Kharkovskaya knizhnaya fabrika im. M. V. Frunze. [in Russian].
Brower, D. R. (1990). The Russian City between Tradition and Modernity, 1850‒1900. Berkeley-Los Angeles Oxford: University of California Press. Retrieved from: https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft4m3nb2mm;brand=ucpress
Capecchi, D., & Ruta, G. (2014). European polytechnic schools in nineteenth century and Karlsruhe’s exemplary case, Meccanica, 49(1), 13‒21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11012-013-9866-9
DAKhO, f. 45, op. 1, t. 2, Pro vidkryttia KhTI.
DAKhO, f. R 1682, t. 2, op. 1, spr. 10, Spravy ta inshi materialy KhTI.
Davies, Norman. (1997). Europe: A History. London: Pimlico.
Dovzhuk, I. V. (2009). Industrial`ny`j Donbas v istoriyi rozvy`tku ekonomiky` Naddnipryans`koyi Ukrayiny` (druga polovy`na XIX–pochatok XX st.). [Industrial Donbass in the history of economic development of Russian-rulled Ukraine (second half of the XIX-beginning of the XX century)], Luhans`k: Vy`davny`cztvo SNU im. V. Dalya [in Ukrainian].
Glebov, S., Mogil'ner, M., & Semenov, A. (2015). Novaya imperskaya istoriya Severnoy Evrazyy. Dolhyy XVIII vek y stanovlenye modernyzatsyonnoy imperyy [The Long Eighteenth Century and the Rise of Modernizing Empire]. Ab Imperio, (1), 323‒447.[in Russian].
Gutnyk, M. V. (2016). Vplyv naukovykh rozrobok kharkivs'kykh uchenykh-tekhnolohiv na formuvannya novoho urbanistychnoho prostoru na mezhi XIX– XX stolit' (na prykladi mista Kharkova) [The influence of scientific developments of Kharkiv scientists-technologists on the formation of a new urban space at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries (on the example of the city of Kharkiv).]. Narodna tvorchist' ta etnolohiya ‒ Folk art and ethnology, 1. Retrieved from: http://repository.kpi.kharkov.ua/bitstream/KhPI-Press/38898/1/NTE_2016_1_Hutnyk_Vplyv_naukovykh.pdf [in Ukrainian].
Imperskaya, N. (2015). Novaya imperskaya istoriya Severnoy Evrazii. Dilemma stabilnosti i progressa: imperiya i reformy. XIXts. [The Dilemma of Stability and Progress: Empire and Reforms in the Nineteenth Century]. Ab Imperio, (2), 167‒253. https://doi.org/10.1353/imp.2015.0068
Konstantinova, V. M. (2010). Urbanizatsiya: pivdennoukrayins'kyy vymir (1861‒1904 roky) [Urbanization: the South Ukrainian dimension (1861‒1904).]. Zaporizhzhya: AA Tandem [in Ukrainian].
Koshman, L. V. (2008). Gorod i gorodskaya zhizn v Rossii XIX stoletiya. Sotsialnyye i kulturnyye aspekty. [City and urban life in Russia in the 19th century. Social and cultural aspects]. Moskva: ROSSPEN [in Russian].
Kulikov, V. O. (2014). Inozemni pidpryyemtsi yak importery kapitalu, innovatsiy ta menedzhmentu v ukrayins'kykh guberniyakh Rosiys'koyi imperiyi naprykintsi XIX – na pochatku XX st. [Foreign entrepreneurs as importers of capital, innovation and management in the Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire in the late XIX ‒ early XX centuries.]. Ukrainian Historical Journal ‒ Ukrayins'kyy istorychnyy zhurnal, (3), 151‒167 [in Ukrainian]. Retrieved from: https://history.vn.ua/journal/journal_2014_3/10.html
Lincoln, W. B. (1982). In the Vanguard of reform: Russia’s Enlightened Bureaucrats, 1825‒1861. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
Mercer, L. P., & Ponticell, J. A. (2012). Polytechnic Education: A key to regional economic development. A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy 3(1), 45‒51. Retrieved from: http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_t/Mercer_2012_T45-51.pdf
Moore, J. (2019). A Brief History of Universities. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01319-6
Nikitin, Yu. O. (2018). Mis'ki spil'noty Livoberezhnoyi Ukrayiny u period modernizatsiyi druhoyi polovyny ХІХ st. [Urban communities of the Left Bank Ukraine during the modernization of the second half of the XIX century]. Kyyivs'ki istorychni studiyi – Kyiv historical studies, 1, 80‒84. Retrieved from: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Khs_2018_1_12 [in Ukrainian].
Payps, R. (1993). Rossiya pri starom rezhime ‒ [Russia under the old regime]. Moskva: Nezavisimaya gazeta [in Russian].
Pombo Vejarano, C., & Ramírez, M. T. (2002). Technical education in England, Germany and France in the nineteenth century: a comparison. Editorial Universidad del Rosario. Retrieved from: https://ideas.repec.org/p/col/000091/003543.html
Portnova, T. (2012). Ukrainski mista Rosiiskoi imperii seredyny KhIKh – pochatku KhKh stolit v svitli modernizatsiinoi teorii [Ukrainian cities of the Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth ‒ early twentieth centuries in the light of modernization theory]. Retrieved from: http://www.historians.in.ua/index.php/en/doslidzhennya/242-tetiana-portnova-ukrainski-mista-rosiiskoi-imperii-seredyny-khikh-pochatku-khkh-stolit-v-svitli-modernizatsiinoi-teorii
Pozner, S. V. (1914). Evrei v obshchey shkole (K istorii zakonodatelstva i pravitelstvennoy politiki v oblasti evreyskogo voprosa). [Jews in the General School (Towards a History of Legislation and Government Policy in the Field of the Jewish Question)]. Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatelstvo «Razum» [in Russian].
RHYA, f. 1276, op. 20, spr. 85, ark. 45, Osoblyvi zhurnaly zasidan Rady ministriv.
RHYA, f. 1293, op. 97, spr. 155, ark. 9.
Rüegg, W. (Ed.). (2004). A history of the university in Europe: Volume 3, universities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (1800–1945) (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.
K 25-letiyu KhTI imperatora Aleksandra III, 1885‒1910. (1910). Vedomosti yuzhno-russkogo obschestva tehnologov, September, 9, 1910.
Vodotyka, T. (2018). Urbanistychne seredovyshche ta pidpryiemnytstvo: paradyhmy spivisnuvannia ta vzaiemodii v pidrosiiskii Ukraini v dobu imperskykh modernizatsiinykh peretvoren [Urban environment and entrepreneurship: paradigms of coexistence and interaction in Dnieper Ukraine in the frame of imperial modernization]. Regional history of Ukraine ‒ Rehional'na istoriya Ukrayiny, 12, 141‒156. Retrieved from: http://resource.history.org.ua/publ/reisuk_2018_12_9 [in Ukrainian].
Wirtschafter, E. K. (1994). Structures of Society. Imperial Russia’s “People of Various Ranks”. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
Abstract views: 263 PDF Downloads: 112
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.