The integration of 3D technology for the conservation and restoration of ruined archaeological artifacts
The restoration and conservation of monuments and archaeological sites is a delicate operation. It requires fidelity, delicacy, precision and archaeological authenticity. The aim is to reveal, recreate as accurately as possible the characteristics of an archaeological site or part of it. Research during the last two decades has proved that 3D modeling, or the digital documentation and visualization of archaeological objects in 3D, is valuable for archaeological research. As well, as for conservation and presentation to a wide audience, as it allows the creation of realistic and accurate digital copies of archaeological objects. In the past, 3D modeling technologies were prohibitively expensive and too technologically specialized to be integrated into most historical heritage projects. However, advancements in computing and digital photography over the past decade have resulted in several low-cost, user-friendly options for 3D modeling, using photogrammetry. The latter has been used successfully for documentation of historic cultural. In recent years, this technology has become increasingly more popular for archiving, which provide the 3D model and digital ortho-image using high accuracy dense 3D points. The study has opted for the technique of terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry by 3D surveys of architectural elements, to develop an archetype of the deteriorated Islamic Marinid site (a dynasty between the 13th and 15th centuries), and the Roman site (25 BC), located at the Chellah archaeological site in Rabat and Salé cities. However, the recognition of the importance of these Islamic sites, in terms of the evolution of Moroccan Islamic art, requires the combination of large-scale scanning capability of unmanned terrestrial, aerial photogrammetry and the photorealistic rendering of 3D, as well as exhaustive research on the history of this cultural site. The data acquired build an architectural database to archive and retrieve the entire existing architecture of monuments. This study has been completed by photogrammetrists, architects, and restorers.
Agisoft Metashape (2019). Agisoft Metashape (Version 1.7.6). Retrieved from http://www.agisoft.com/downloads/installer/.
Alberti, S., Ferretti, A., Leoni, G., Margottini, C., & Spizzichino, D. (2017). Surface deformation data in the archaeological site of Petra from medium-resolution satellite radar images and SqueeSARTM algorithm. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 25, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2017.01.005.
Alby, E., & Grussenmeyer, P. (2012). From point cloud to 3D model, modelling methods based on architectural knowledge applied to fortress of Châtel-sur-Moselle (France). International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 39, 75–80. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXIX-B5-75-2012.
Alshawabkeh, Y., El-Khalili, M., Almasri, E., Bala’awi, F., & Al-Massarweh, A. (2020). Heritage documentation using laser scanner and photogrammetry. The case study of Qasr Al-Abidit, Jordan. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, 16, e00133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.daach.2019.e00133.
Aparicio, P., Espinoza-Figueroa, F., Aguirre, M. D. C., Mejía, P., & Matovelle, C. (2018). Digital photogrammetry for the 3D model of the archeological site of Todos Santos, Cuenca (Ecuador). Estoa. Revista de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo de la Universidad de Cuenca, 7(13), 31–54. https://doi.org/10.18537/est.v007.n013.a02.
Bakirman, T., Bayram, B., Akpinar, B., Karabulut, M. F., Bayrak, O. C., Yigitoglu, A., & Seker, D.Z. (2020). Implementation of ultra-light U AV systems for cultural heritage documentation. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 44, 174–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2020.01.006.
Bedford, J. (2017). Photogrammetric Applications for Cultural Heritage: Guidance for Good Practice. Swindon: Historic England. Retrieved from https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/photogrammetric-applications-for-cultural-heritage/heag066-photogrammetric-applications-cultural-heritage/
Belhaj, S., Bahi, L., & Akhssas, A. (2017). Comparative technical, architectural and archaeological study of the various marinid medersas in the Maghreb. Energy Procedia, 125, 666–670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.08.284.
Boube, J. (1999). Les nécropoles de Sala. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les civilization [in French].
Boukous, A. (2011). Patrimoine cuturel materiel : Les arts décoratifs. Asinag, 6, 87–92. Retrieved from https://www.ircam.ma/sites/default/files/doc/asinag-6/realise-par-mustapha-jlok.pdf. [in French]
Calin, M. (2015). 3D modeling for digital preservation of Romanian heritage monuments. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 6, 421–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.08.111.
Chiabrando, F., Donadio, E., & Rinaudo, F. (2015). SfM for orthophoto to generation: A winning approach for cultural heritage knowledge. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XL-5/W7, 91–98. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-W7-91-2015.
Colomina, I., & Molina, P. (2014). Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing : A review. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 92, 79–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.02.013.
Cook, M. J., & DeSanto, J. B. (2019). Validation of geodetic seafloor benchmark stability using structure from motion and seafloor pressure data. Earth and Space Science, 6(9), 1781–1786. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EA000623.
Cucci, C., Picollo, M., & Vervat, M. (2012). Trans-illumination and trans-irradiation with digital cameras : Potentials and limits of two imaging techniques used for the diagnostic investigation of paintings. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 13(1), 83–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2011.07.002.
Daniotti, B., Gianinetto, M., & Della Torre, S. (Éds.). (2020). Digital Transformation of the Design, Construction and Management Processes of the Built Environment. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33570-0.
El-Din Fawzy, H. (2019). 3D laser scanning and close-range photogrammetry for buildings documentation : A hybrid technique towards a better accuracy. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 58(4), 1191–1204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2019.10.003.
Erenoglu, R. C., Akcay, O., & Erenoglu, O. (2017). An UAS-assisted multi-sensor approach for 3D modeling and reconstruction of cultural heritage site. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 26, 79–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2017.02.007.
Galantucci, R. A., & Fatiguso, F. (2019). Advanced damage detection techniques in historical buildings using digital photogrammetry and 3D surface anlysis. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 36, 51–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2018.09.014.
Ginzler, C., & Hobi, M. (2015). Countrywide stereo-image matching for updating digital surface models in the framework of the Swiss National Forest Inventory. Remote Sensing, 7(4), 4343–4370. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70404343.
Grussenmeyer, P. (2003). Photogrammétrie architecturale et modélisation 3D du patrimoine. Revue XYZ, (95), 30–36. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pierre-Grussenmeyer/publication/282057387_Photogrammetrie_architecturale_et_modelisation_3D_du_patrimoine/links/561aa3f408ae6d1730898e36/Photogrammetrie-architecturale-et-modelisation-3D-du-patrimoine.pdf. [in French]
Hanan, H., Suwardhi, D., Nurhasanah, T., & Bukit, E. S. (2015). Batak toba cultural heritage and close-range photogrammetry. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 184, 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.05.079.
Hill, A. C. (2019). Economical drone mapping for archaeology : Comparisons of efficiency and accuracy. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 24, 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.12.011.
Koutsoudis, A., Arnaoutoglou, F., & Chamzas, C. (2007). On 3D reconstruction of the old city of Xanthi. A minimum budget approach to virtual touring based on photogrammetry. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 8(1), 26–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2006.08.003.
Lee, K. (2018). Military application of aerial photogrammetry mapping assisted by small unmanned air vehicles (Master's thesis). Air Force Institute of Technology Air University: Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Retrieved from https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/AD1056512.pdf.
Liang, H., Li, W., Lai, S., Zhu, L., Jiang, W., & Zhang, Q. (2018). The integration of terrestrial laser scanning and terrestrial and unmanned aerial vehicle digital photogrammetry for the documentation of Chinese classical gardens – A case study of Huanxiu Shanzhuang, Suzhou, China. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 33, 222–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2018.03.004.
Loaiza Carvajal, D. A., Morita, M. M., & Bilmes, G. M. (2020). Virtual museums. Captured reality and 3D modeling. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 45, 234–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2020.04.013
Martin, O., Meynard, C., Pierrot-Deseilligny, M., Souchon, J. P., & Thom, C. (2017). Réalisation d'une caméra photogrammétrique ultralégère et de haute résolution. Revue Française de Photogrammétrie et de Télédétection, 213–214, 3–9 [in French].
McCarthy, J. (2014). Multi-image photogrammetry as a practical tool for cultural heritage survey and community engagement. Journal of Archaeological Science, 43, 175–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.01.010.
Micheletti, N., Chandler, J. H., & Lane, S. N. (2015). Structure from motion (SFM) photogrammetry. In L. E. Clarke, & J. M. Nield (Eds.), Geomorphological Techniques, Chap. 2, Sec. 2.2. (pp. 1–12). London: British Society for Geomorphology. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/2134/17493.
Nagy, P. T. (2020). From Rabat to Marseille: Šālla and the 1922 exposition coloniale in France. The Arabist Budapest Studies in Arabic, 41, 101–119. Retrieved from http://real-j.mtak.hu/15761/1/The_Arabist_Budapest_Studies_in_Arabic_2020_41.pdf#page=124
Napolitano, R. K., & Glisic, B. (2018). Minimizing the adverse effects of bias and low repeatability precision in photogrammetry software through statistical analysis. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 31, 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2017.11.005.
New Jersey Department of Transportation (2009). Minimum guidelines for aerial photogrammetric mapping. Issued BDC98PR-009 by quality management services configuration management. Trenton, New Jersey: Department of Transportation. Retrieved from https://www.state.nj.us/transportation/eng/documents/photogrammetry/pdf/Photogrammetric.pdf.
Obradović, M., Vasiljević, I., Đurić, I., Kićanović, J., Stojaković, V., & Obradović, R. (2020). Virtual reality models based on photogrammetric surveys – A case study of the iconostasis of the Serbian Orthodox Cathedral Church of Saint Nicholas in Sremski Karlovci (Serbia). Applied Sciences, 10(8), 2743. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082743.
Peña-Villasenín, S., Gil-Docampo, M., & Ortiz-Sanz, J. (2019). Professional SfM and TLS vs a simple SfM photogrammetry for 3D modelling of rock art and radiance scaling shading in engraving detection. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 37, 238–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2018.10.009.
Pennell, C. R. (2013). Morocco: From empire to independence. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Pollefeys, M. (2000). Visual 3D Modeling from Images. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. Retrieved from https://www.cvg.ethz.ch/teaching/compvis/tutorial.pdf.
Rocheleau, M. (2005). La modélisation 3D comme méthode de recherche en sciences historiques. In Actes du 10e colloque international d’ARTEFACT (pp. 245–265). Université Laval: Québec. Retrieved from https://www.erudit.org/en/books/actes-des-colloques-dartefact/actes-10e-colloque-international-etudiant-departement-dhistoire-luniversite--978-2-9812053-9-1/004288co.pdf [in French].
Rosin, P. L., Lai, Y.-K., Liu, C., Davis, G. R., Mills, D., Tuson, G., & Russell, Y. (2018). Virtual recovery of content from X-Ray micro-tomography scans of damaged historic scrolls. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 11901. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29037-x.
Salih, A., & Amrani, H. (2012). Wilaya de la région Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaër [in French].
Saputra, A., Rahardianto, T., & Gomez, C. (2017). The application of structure from motion (SfM) to identify the geological structure and outcrop studies. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1857(1), 030001. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4987060.
Shatzmiller, M. (2011). Marīnid Fez : The economic background of the “Quest for Empire”. Proceedings of Interdisciplinary Conference Fez in World History, Al-Akhawayn University, Ifrane, Morocco (pp. 7–40). Retrieved from https://history.uwo.ca/People/Docs/Shatzmiller-Articles/17-Marinid-Fez.pdf.
Shervais, W. K., Dietrich, J., & Lauer, I. (2019). Structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry data exploration and processing manua [SfM Data Exploration and Processing Manual Guide]. Boulder, Colorado: Unavco. Retrieved from https://d32ogoqmya1dw8.cloudfront.net/files/getsi/teaching_materials/high-rez-topo/student_materials/sfm_data_processing_exploration.v3.pdf.
Simou, S., Baba, K., Nounah, A., & Aarab, A. (2020). 3D reconstruction of the Marinids site located at the Chellah archaeological area. In Proceedings 8th REHABEND Congress 2020 (pp. 2807–2814). Granada Santander, Spain: University of Cantabria. Retrieved from https://www.bib.irb.hr/1094053/download/1094053.REHABEND-Libro_ARTICULOS-PerhavecVidakovic.pdf.
Singhal, G., Bansod, B., & Mathew, L. (2018). Unmanned aerial vehicle classification, applications and challenges : A review. Preprints, 2018110601. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints201811.0601.v1.
Terrisse, M. (2011). Les musées de sites archéologiques appréhendés en tant que vecteurs de développement local à travers trois études de cas préfigurant la mise en valeur opérationnelle du site de Chellah (Doctoral dissertation). Université du Maine, Le Mans. Retrieved from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00654271/ [in French].
Thomas, H. (2017). A methodology for combining terrestrial and aerial photographs to create high resolution photogrammetric models of large-scale archaeological sites: A case study for Methone, Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 16, 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.09.015.
Wei, O. C., Majid, Z., Setan, H., Ariff, M. F. M., Idris, K. M., Darwin, N., … Zainuddin, K. (2019). Three-dimensional recording and photorealistic model reconstruction for virtual museum application–an experience in Malaysia. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-2/W9, 763–771. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W9-763-2019.
Xie, I., & Matusiak, K. (2016). Chapter 3 – Digitization of text and still images. In I. Xie, K. Matusiak (Eds.), Discover Digital Libraries (pp. 59–93). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417112-1.00003-X.
Yang, X., Grussenmeyer, P., Koehl, M., Macher, H., Murtiyoso, A., & Landes, T. (2020). Review of built heritage modelling: Integration of HBIM and other information techniques. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 46, 350–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2020.05.008.
Yastikli, N. (2007). Documentation of cultural heritage using digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 8(4), 423–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2007.06.003.
Yilmaz, H. M., Yakar, M., Gulec, S. A., & Dulgerler, O. N. (2007). Importance of digital close-range photogrammetry in documentation of cultural heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 8(4), 428–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2007.07.004.
Abstract views: 42 PDF Downloads: 18
Copyright (c) 2022 History of science and technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
License terms: authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
The scanned copy of the "Agreement” on the authors" copyright transfer on the manuscript publication and the subsequent posting of the paper on the Internet (in * .pdf or * .jpg format) is to be attached to the manuscript of the paper.
By this agreement the author certifies that the submitted material:
- does not infringe the copyright of other persons or organizations;
- was not previously published in other publishing houses and has not been submitted for publication in other editions.
The author passes the editorial board of the journal "History of science and technology" rights to:
- publication of the article in Ukrainian (English and Russian) language and distribution of its printed copy;
- translation of the article into English language (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian language) and distribution of its translated printed copy;
- distribution of the article electronic copy, as well as electronic copy of the article English translation (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian), via any electronic means (placing on the official web-site of the journal, electronic databases, repositories, etc.) printed copy of the translation.
The author reserves the right without the consent of the editorial board and founders:
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part for educational purposes.
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part to write their own dissertations.
- Use the materials of the article for the preparation of abstracts, conference reports, as well as oral presentations.
- Place electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic copy downloaded from the official web-site of the journal) to:
- personal web-resources of all authors (web-sites, web-pages, blogs, etc.);
- web-resources of institutions where authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);
- non-commercial web-resources of open access (for example, arXiv.org).
In all cases, the availability of a bibliographic link to an article or hyperlink to its electronic copy on the official website of the journal is compulsory.