A petrochemical study of Mughal plasters of Quila-I-Ark, Aurangabad with respect to technology and repair
This paper reports the mineralogical composition of western India's 16-17th century Mughal plasters of Quila-I-Ark, Aurangabad to prepare compatible repair mortar and document ancient Indian lime technology. Analytical studies were undertaken for aggregate grain size distribution, thin section analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical composition of the plasters by x-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis). The analysis revealed the inclusion of large size basaltic aggregate grains mostly sourced from the water channel of nearby Harsullake. Some of the plaster works show prominent inclusion of small size grains pointing different periods of construction. Creamy white zeolites were found specifically added in the mortar mix to maintain a certain level of humidity during the dry season. The zeolite is highly porous and breaks easily both in dry and wet conditions. The calcite rich limestone with traces of magnesium was sourced as raw material for the plasters. Based on mineralogical composition and binder/aggregate ratio, three phases of historical constructions were documented. FTIR and thin section analysis showed the mixing of some proteinaceous adhesive juice in the lime for improvement in rheological and waterproof properties. The high quantity of large size aggregate grains ensured better carbonation of lime and the source of aggregates remained the same for all phases of historical constructions. The cementation index (C.I.) and hydraulicity index (H.I.) vary between 0.10 to 0.96 and 0.20 to 3.43, respectively showing the plaster is aerial lime with traces of magnesium. The plaster is feebly hydraulic as the hydraulic component calculated varies between 0.88 to 6.10 percent in different samples. A moderate strength plaster with a lime/silica ratio close to 0.33 was prepared for most phases of construction except a few isolated locations. The analytical data will now help to prepare compatible mortar with identical additives for a major repair.
Baronio, G., Binda, L., & Lombardini, N. (1997). The role of brick pebbles and dust in conglomerates based on hydrated lime and crushed bricks.Construction and Building Materials,11(1), 33‒40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(96)00031-1
Boggs, S. (2011). Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River.
Boynton, R. S. (1966). Chemistry and technology of lime and limestone. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Charola, A. E., Dupas, M., Sheryll R., & Freund, G. (1984). Characterization of ancient mortars: chemical and instrumental methods, Scientific Methodologies Applied to Works of Art. Proceedings of the symposium, 2‒5 May 1984. Florence, Italy.
Cliver, E. B. (1974). Tests for the analysis of mortar samples. Bulletin of the association for preservation technology, 6(1), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.2307/1493411
Cuezva, S., García-Guinea, J., Fernandez-Cortes, A., Benavente, D., Ivars, J., Galán, J. M., & Sanchez-Moral, S. (2016). Composition, uses, provenance and stability of rocks and ancient mortars in a theban tomb in Luxor (Egypt). Materials and structures, 49(3), 941‒960. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-015-0550-5
Davey, N. (1961). History of building materials. London: Phoenix House.
Beed district (1969) Hazara, Kohat. Gazetteers, Vol. B 8.
Elsen, J., Van Balen, K., & Mertens, G. (2012). Hydraulicity in historic lime mortars: a review. Historic Mortars, 7, 125‒139. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4635-0_10
Huggett, R. (2007). Fundamentals of geomorphology. London, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Jayavanta, D., Patel, G. H., & Kamathe, B. (2015). Aitihasik Aurangabad- Tatabandhi and Darwaze. Aurangabad: Chinmay Prakashan.
Jedrzejewska, H. (1960). Old mortars in Poland: a new method of investigation. Studies in Conservation, 5(4), 132–138. https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.1960.021
Leslie, A. B., & Gibbons, P. (1999). Mortar analysis and repair specification in the conservation of scottish historic buildings, International RILEM Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests. Paisley:RILEM Publications SARL.
Leslie, A. B., & Hughes, J. (2002). Binder microstructure in lime mortars: implications for the interpretation of analysis results. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 35(3), 257‒263. https://doi.org/10.1144/1470-923601-27
Malinowski, R., & Garfinkel, Y. (1991). Prehistory of concrete. Concrete International, 13(3), 62‒68.
Miriello, D., Lezzerini, M., Chiaravalloti, F., Bloise, A., Apollaro, C. & Crisciet, G. M. (2013). Replicating the chemical composition of the binder for restoration of historic mortars as an optimization problem. Computers and Concrete, 12(4), 553–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.12989/cac.2013.12.4.553
Malinowski, R. (1981). Ancient mortars and concrete.Durability aspects, Mortars, cements and grouts used in the conservation of historic buildings. Symposium, Rome, 3‒6 Nov. 1981. Rome: Iccrom.
Papayianni, I. (2009). Design and manufacture of repair mortars for interventions on monuments and historical building, Workshop Repair Mortars for Historic Masonry. RILEM Publications SARL.
Papayianni, I., Pachta, V., &, Stefanidou, M. (2013). Analysis of ancient mortars and design of compatible repair mortars: the case study of odeion of the archaeological site of Dion. Construction and Building Materials, 40, 84‒92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.09.086
Schiavon, N., & Mazzocchin, G. A. (2009). The provenance of sand in mortars from roman villas in ne Italy: a chemical–mineralogical approach. The Open Mineralogy Journal, 3, 32‒39.
Singh, M. (1993).Analysis and characterization of Charminar lime plaster. Current Science, 64(10), 760‒764.
Singh, M., & Arbad, B. R. (2015). Characterization of 4th – 5th century A. D. earthen plaster support layers of Ajanta mural paintings. Construction and Building Materials, 82, 142‒154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.02.043
Singh, M., Kumar, S. V., & Sabale, P. D. (2018). Chemical and mineralogical investigations of lime plasters of medieval structures of Hampi, India. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 725‒741. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2018.1469175
Singh, M., Waghmare, S., & Vinodh Kumar, S. (2014). Characterization of lime plasters used in 16Thcentury Mughal monument. Journal of Archaeological Science,42(1), 430‒434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.11.019
Singh, M., (1992). Studies on lime plasters of Golconda fort,Role of chemistry in archaeology. 1st international colloquium held in Hyderabad (India), 15‒18 November 1991. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: Birla Institute of Scientific Research.
Singh, M., & Sharma, R. K. (1995). Chemical characterization of Bidar Fort (India) plaster,Conservation, preservation and restoration: traditions, trends and techniques.Hyderabad (India): BACRI.
Singh, М., Sanjeev, K., & Singh, M. (2020). The mineralogical and physical behavior of brick aggregates in twelfth century brick-lime stepwell plasters of Gandhak-Ki-Baoli, New Delhi.Journal of architectural conservation,26 (2), 1‒17. https://doi.org/10.1080/13556207.2020.1768480
Viaene, W., Waelkens, M., Ottenburgs, R., & Callebaut, K. (1997). An archaeometric study of mortars used at Sagalassos. Sagalassos IV. Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae, 9, 405‒422.
Abstract views: 291 PDF Downloads: 131
Copyright (c) 2020 History of science and technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.