Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) ecosystems in Indonesia (1945-2021): A historical policy analysis
By the mid 2019, the President of Republic of Indonesia Joko Widodo had stipulated Law No. 11/2019, concerning the National System of Science and Technology. This regulation served as an efforts from the Indonesian government to build the science and technology and innovation ecosystem lies in terms of strengthening innovation policies. The implication of this policy mandates that the National Research and Innovation Agency serves as the only research and innovation institution owned by the Government of Republic of Indonesia. Efforts in establishing the science and technology ecosystem and innovation have been initiated since the era of President Soekarno (1945-1965), which was further continued in the leadership of the next president. The aforementioned efforts are additionally described in this study from the perspective of policy history. A content analysis approach is employed to identify each stipulated regulation in Indonesia in the form of Laws, Government Regulations, Presidential Regulations, Presidential Decrees, and Presidential Instructions. There are 78 regulations in the field of science and technology and innovation that are analyzed. The results of the analysis are described based on the emergence of regulations and institutional implications generated as part of the ecosystem.
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