Science and comics: from popularization to the discipline of Comics Studies
Modern scientific communication traditionally uses visual narratives, such as comics, for education, presentation of scientific achievements to a mass audience, and as an object of research. The article offers a three-level characterization of the interaction of comic culture and science in a diachronic aspect. Attention is focused not only on the chronological stages of these intersections, the expression of the specifics of the interaction is offered against the background of scientific and public discussions that accompany the comics–science dialogue to this day. Within the framework of the first stage (the appearance and distribution of popular science and educational comics), the characteristics of comics content necessary for the different genesis are highlighted: documentary storytelling, educational practices of learning through drawing, active cooperation with well-known companies and institutions, informativeness and empathic involvement of the young reader in a heroico-romantic narrative of scientific discoveries and mastering nature. With the intensification of interdisciplinary approaches (the second stage), comics are increasingly involved in presenting scientific results within the most diverse fields. Comics-based research is becoming an interdisciplinary method and a widespread practical area with the corresponding formation of scientific tools (applied comics, data comics), forms of interdisciplinary interaction (graphic medicine, ethnography, narrative geography, urban comics, comics journalism, etc.), and scientific publications (“The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship”, “Sequentials”). The national format of comics-based research is presented on the example of Ukrainian comics projects (historical, feminist comics). In the genesis of development, Comics Studies have gone from a field of research to disciplinary definitions. In the creation of the metadiscourse of the scientific direction (the third stage), the authors focused on scientific discussions, the formation of academic directions and approaches, and markers of disciplinary self-identification. Emphasis is placed on the unique phenomenon of the simultaneous concordance of various stages of the dialogue between comics and science, on the prolonged replication of successful inventions into modern experience, and the active testing of known narratives at new levels of a scientific presentation.
Aldama, F. L. (2020). The Oxford handbook of comic book studies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Alie, A. F., Ilhamdi, M. L., & Saputra, H. H. (2021). The effect of the media comic education on science learning outcome. Jurnal Pijar Mipa, 16(5), 589–594. https://doi.org/10.29303/jpm.v16i5.2931.
Augereau, O., Iwata, M., & Kise, K. (2018). A survey of comics research in computer science. Journal of Imaging, 4(7), 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging4070087.
Belov, D. (2021). Ukrainski komiksy: bibliotechno-informatsiinyi vymir [Ukrainian comics: library and information dimension] [Unpublished PhD dissertation]. Kyiv: Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts [in Ukranian].
Beylie, C. (1964). La bande dessinée est-elle un art? Lettre et médecins [in French].
Callender, B., Obuobi, S., Czerwiec, M. K., & Williams, I. (2020). COVID-19, comics, and the visual culture of contagion. The Lancet, 396(10257), 1061‒1063. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)32084-5.
Cancellieri, A., & Peterle, G. (2021). Urban research in comics form: Exploring spaces, agency and narrative maps in Italian marginalized neighbourhoods. Sociologica, 15(1), 211‒239. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/12776.
Chang, S. (2021). Retracted: Innovative research on the integration of boneless Chinese painting techniques and commercial comics based on big data analysis. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1992(2), 022005. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1992/2/022005.
Chute, H. (2016). Disaster Drawn: Visual Witness, Comics, and Documentary Form. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Cour, E. L., Grennan, S., Spanjers, R., & Nature, S. (2021). Key terms in comics studies. Basingstoke: Springer Nature.
Deverell, R. D (2021). The Comics Code Authority: Mass-Media Censorship in Postwar America. [Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo]. Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com/docview/2495035964/abstract/672FB29FAFC54ED1PQ/44.
Domsch, S., Hassler-Forest, D., & Vanderbeke, D. (2021). Handbook of comics and graphic narratives. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.
Dunst, A., Laubrock, J., & Wildfeuer, J. (2018). Empirical comics research: Digital, multimodal, and cognitive methods. London: Routledge.
Farinella, M. (2018). The potential of comics in science communication. Journal of Science Communication, 17(01), Y01. https://doi.org/10.22323/2.17010401.
Fawaz, R., Whaley, D., & Streeby, S. (2021). Keywords for comics studies. New York: New York University Press.
Forde, S. D. (2022). Drawing your way into ethnographic research: comics and drawing as arts-based methodology. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 14(4), 648–667. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2021.1974929.
Gabilliet, J.-P. (2005). Du comic book au graphic novel: l'européanisation de la bande dessinée américaine. Image & Narrative, 12. Retrieved from http://www.imageandnarrative.be/inarchive/tulseluper/gabilliet.htm [in French].
Greenberg, M. (2022). Chapter 9: Censoring creativity, the comics code authority and the birth of the comic book legal defense fund. In Comic Art, Creativity and the Law (pp. 118‒131). https://doi.org/10.4337/9781802202557.00019.
Hatfield, Ch. (2017). Foreword: Comics Studies, the Anti-Discipline. In Duncan, R., Smith, M. J. (Eds.), The Secret Origins of Comics Studies (pp. 11‒27). New York: Routledge.
Hatfield, Ch., & Beaty, B. (2020). Comics studies: A guidebook. Chicago: Rutgers University Press.
Helms, J. (2010). Rhiz|comics: The Structure, Sign, and Play of Image and Text. (Doctor of Philosophy dissertation) Retrieved from https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_dissertations/523.
Hosler, J. (2018). Science Comics Can Save the World! TEDxJuniataCollege. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=feTCOfJkq18&ab_channel=TEDxTalks.
Hudoshnyk, O. (2020). Transmedialni naratyvy komiksovoi zhurnalistyky: svitovyi ta ukrainskyi dosvid [Transmedial narratives of comics journalism: world and Ukrainian experience]. Communications and Communicative Technologies, (20), 32‒41. https://doi.org/10.15421/292005 [in Ukranian].
Hudoshnyk, O. (2022) Voiennyi komiks yak media: ukrainski ta svitovi hrafichni naratyvy [Military comics as a media: ukrainian and world graphic narratives]. In Media narratives: a collective monograph (pp. 43‒58). Dnipro: Lira. Retrieved from http://fszmk.dnu.dp.ua/uploads/files/Монографія/2022/Гудошник 1.pdf [in Ukranian].
Hudoshnyk, O. (2022а). Komiks yak instrument suchasnoi naukovoi komunikatsii [Comics as a tool of modern scientific communication]. Communications and Communicative Technologies, (22), 54‒60. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/292206 [in Ukranian].
Jacobs, D. (2019). Comics studies as Interdiscipline. In Aldama F. L. (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Comic Book Studies (pp. 655‒670). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190917944.013.38.
Jee, B. D., & Anggoro, F. K. (2012). Comic cognition: Exploring the potential cognitive impacts of science comics. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 11(2), 196‒208. https://doi.org/10.1891/1945-89220.127.116.11.
Jonsson, A., & Grafström, M. (2021). Rethinking science communication: Reflections on what happens when science meets comic art. Journal of Science Communication, 20(02), Y01. https://doi.org/10.22323/2.20020401.
Kamash, Z., Soar, K., & Van Broeck, L. (2022). Comics and Archaeology. Palgrave Studies in Comics and Graphic Novels. Cham: Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98919-4.
Kuttner, P. J., Weaver-Hightower, M. B., & Sousanis, N. (2020). Comics-based research: The affordances of comics for research across disciplines. Qualitative Research, 21(2), 195‒214. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794120918845.
LeBlanc, N., & Irwin, R. L. (2018). Teachers storying themselves into teaching: Comics as an emergent and relational form of research. LEARNing Landscapes, 11(2), 223‒239. https://doi.org/10.36510/learnland.v11i2.959.
Leinfelder, R., Hamann, A., Kirstein, J., & Schleunitz, M. (Eds.). (2016). Herausgeber. In Die Anthropozän-Küche (pp. 207‒208). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49872-9_14 [in German].
McNicol, S. (2019). Using participant-created comics as a research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 19(3), 236‒247. https://doi.org/10.1108/qrj-d-18-00054.
Mickwitz, N. (2016). Documentary comics: Graphic truth-telling in a skeptical age. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Peterle, G. (2021). Comics as a Research Practice: Drawing Narrative Geographies Beyond the Frame. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003058069.
Puput, F., Ahmadi, F., & Rochmad, R. (2021). The implementation of mathematics comic through contextual teaching and learning to improve critical thinking ability and character. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 497‒508. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.1.497.
Ricca, B. (2014, November 14) Unassuming barber shop: The 1st American comics scholar was a Superman artist. The Beat Comics and Pop Culture News, Review, and Interviews [Blog]. Retrieved from https://www.comicsbeat.com/unassuming-barber-shop-the-1st-american-comics-scholar-was-a-superman-artist/
Schmid, J. C. (2021). Frames and framing in documentary comics. Basingstoke: Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63303-5.
Scolari, C., Bertetti, P., & Freeman, M. (2014). Transmedia archaeology: Storytelling in the borderlines of science fiction, comics and pulp magazines. Palgrave Pivot.
Seldes, G. (1923). The Seven Lively Arts. Retrieved from https://www.gutenberg.org/files/66294/66294-h/66294-h.htm.
Sohini, K. (2022). On graphic scholarship: A conversation with Nick Sousanis. The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship, 12(1), 7, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.16995/cg.8773.
Sousanis, N. (2020). Thinking in comics: All hands-on in the classroom. In S. E. Kirtley, A. Garcia, & P. E. Carlson (Eds.), With Great Power Comes Great Pedagogy: Teaching, Learning, and Comics (pp. 92–116). USA: University Press of Mississippi. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvx5w9g0.13.
Swogger, J. G. (2022). “They do things differently there”: Articulating the unfamiliar past in community heritage comics. In Kamash, Z., Soar, K., Van Broeck, L. (Eds.) Comics and Archaeology. Palgrave Studies in Comics and Graphic Novels (pp. 155‒171). Cham: Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98919-4_7.
Tatalovic, M. (2009). Science comics as tools for science education and communication: A brief, exploratory study. Journal of Science Communication, 08(04), A02. https://doi.org/10.22323/2.08040202.
Thornborrow, J., & Gosse, D. (2020).Utilizing comics in arts-informed appreciative inquiry: untapped potential when conducting research with children. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education, 11(2), 114-120. Retrieved from https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/cjnse/article/view/71246.
Weber, W., & Rall, H. (2017). Authenticity in comics journalism. Visual strategies for reporting facts. Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics, 8(4), 376‒397. https://doi.org/10.1080/21504857.2017.1299020.
Wegner, G. (2020). Reflections on the boom of graphic pathography: The effects and affects of narrating disability and illness in comics. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 14(1), 57‒74. https://doi.org/10.3828/jlcds.2019.18.
Williams, I. C. (2012). Graphic medicine: Comics as medical narrative. Medical Humanities, 38(1), 21‒27. https://doi.org/10.1136/medhum-2011-010093.
Wisocki, L., Murphy, A., & Murphy, L. (2021). Applied comics collaborations: Ways for humanities and social science researchers to work together with comics creators. Applied Comics Etc [Blog]. Retrieved from https://appliedcomicsetc.com/projects/collaborations/.
Woo, B. (2019). What kind of studies is comics studies? In Aldama, F. L. (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Comic Book Studies (pp. 2‒15). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190917944.013.1.
Woo, B., & Stoll, J. (2021). The comics world: Comic books, graphic novels, and their publics. USA: University Press of Mississippi.
Wysocki, L. (2022, January 31). Comics as a research method: An ongoing journey. Methodspace [Blog]. Retrieved from https://www.methodspace.com/blog/comics-as-a-research-method-an-ongoing-journey
Yabchenko, M. (2022). Korotka istoriia ukrainskoho feminizmu: malopys [Brief history of Ukrainian feminism: comics]. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo [in Ukranian].
Zorbaugh, H. (1949). What adults think of comics as reading for children. Journal of Educational Sociology, 23(4), 225‒235. https://doi.org/10.2307/2264558.
Abstract views: 208 PDF Downloads: 203
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
License terms: authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
The scanned copy of the "Agreement” on the authors" copyright transfer on the manuscript publication and the subsequent posting of the paper on the Internet (in * .pdf or * .jpg format) is to be attached to the manuscript of the paper.
By this agreement the author certifies that the submitted material:
- does not infringe the copyright of other persons or organizations;
- was not previously published in other publishing houses and has not been submitted for publication in other editions.
The author passes the editorial board of the journal "History of science and technology" rights to:
- publication of the article in Ukrainian (English and Russian) language and distribution of its printed copy;
- translation of the article into English language (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian language) and distribution of its translated printed copy;
- distribution of the article electronic copy, as well as electronic copy of the article English translation (for articles in Ukrainian and Russian), via any electronic means (placing on the official web-site of the journal, electronic databases, repositories, etc.) printed copy of the translation.
The author reserves the right without the consent of the editorial board and founders:
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part for educational purposes.
- Use the materials of the article in whole or in part to write their own dissertations.
- Use the materials of the article for the preparation of abstracts, conference reports, as well as oral presentations.
- Place electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic copy downloaded from the official web-site of the journal) to:
- personal web-resources of all authors (web-sites, web-pages, blogs, etc.);
- web-resources of institutions where authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);
- non-commercial web-resources of open access (for example, arXiv.org).
In all cases, the availability of a bibliographic link to an article or hyperlink to its electronic copy on the official website of the journal is compulsory.