Russian aviation industry and First World War challenges

  • Pavlo Tkachuk Hetman Petro Sahaydachny National Army Academy
  • Andrij Kharuk Hetman Petro Sahaydachny National Army Academy https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3459-1657
  • Ihor Soliar Ivan Krypiakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0439-6957
  • Lilia Skorych Hetman Petro Sahaydachny National Army Academy
Keywords: aviation industry, aviation plant, military aviation, military aircraft, Russian Empire, First World War

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to highlight the peculiarities of the development of the Russian aviation industry during the First World War. The focus is on analyzing production programs and matching their quantitative and qualitative parameters to war requirements. The main methods used in our work are problem-chronological, used to describe the state of the Russian aviation industry, and comparative, used to compare the level of development of the Russian aviation industry with other countries that participated in the First World War. General scientific methods have also found their application ‒ primarily, analysis and synthesis. The research resulted in the following conclusions: First World War became a challenge for Russian industry that was in the developing stage, including aviation industry. Needs of the front demanded for increase in plane productions that was a complex task for Russia, taking into account its economic backwardness. Aviation industry, being represented by several big (in the scope of Russia) enterprises, demonstrated a dynamic of growth. For the war period the plane production capacity had increased only in 3 times while in Germany – in 10 times and in France and Great Britain the growth was much bigger. Leading enterprises of aviation industry, such as factory of Duks, Liebiediev, Anatra, Shchetinin – mainly copied foreign samples (French, and sometimes German). Efforts to establish the production of original samples were a complete failure. The most known example is fighter “Illia Muromets” that was a leading one in 1914 but became old-fashioned till 1917. Aviation engine production was also narrow and was far beyond plane production. Enormous investments made in the development existed and building of new enterprises of planes and aviation engines production in 1916‒1917 did not show any results, none of the enterprises started the production. We have analyzed some of these failures – building of Anatra factory in Simferopol and Matias factory in Berdiansk, and aero-motors factories Anatra in Simferopol and Deka in Aleksandrovsk. State police on controlling aviation industry based on providing subsidies and preferential loan, turned to be ineffective – it was vanished by basic purchasing prices that did not count on inflation. That is why Russian aviation industry appeared to be unable to face and respond to war challenges. Production plans of leading Russian aviation factories as well as qualitative and quantitative parameters of products have been analyzed in the article.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aleksandrov, A. O. (1998a). Apparaty Shchetinina i Grigorovicha [Apparats of Shchetinin and i Grigorovich]. St Petersburg: B. S. K. [in Russian].

Aleksandrov, A. O. (1998b). Gidroaeroplany M-5 i M-20 [Seaplanes M-5 and M-20]. St Petersburg: B. S. K. [in Russian].

Aleksandrov, A. O. & Petrov, G. F. (1997). Krylatyye plenniki Rossii [Winged captives of Russia]. St Petersburg: B. S. K. [in Russian].

Duz, P. D. (1989). Istoria vozdukhoplavaniya i aviatsii v Rossii: Period piervoi mirovoi voiny (1914-1918) [History of aeronautics and aviation in Russia: The period of the First World War (1914‒1918)]. Moscow: Mashinostroenie [in Russian].

Hornat, J. (2005). Descamps 27C.1. Letectvi+kosmonautika – Aviation + Cosmonautics, 11, 32–33 [in Czech].

Khairulin, M. A. (2010). “Illia Mutomets”. Gordost’ russkoyi aviatsii [“Illia Mutomets”. Pride of Russian aviation]. Moscow: Yauza, Eksmo [in Russian].

Kharuk, A. (2010) Narys istorii aviatsiynoi promyslovosti Ukrainy (1910‒1980-ti rr.) [Essay on the history of the aviation industry of Ukraine]. Lviv: Lvivska Politehnika [in Ukrainian].

Kharuk, A. I. (2014). Bombardirowshchiki Piervoi mirovoi voiny [Bombers of First World War]. Moscow: Yauza, Eksmo [in Russian].

Kharuk, A. I. (2020). Litak “Vuazen Ivanova”: dokumentalna istoriia modernizatsii, vyrobnytstva i sluzhby [“Voisin Ivanova” aircraft: a documentary history of modernization, production and service]. Doslidzhennia z istorii i filosofii nauky i tekhniky – Studies in History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, 29(2), 84–89. https://doi.org/10.15421/272024 [in Ukrainian].

Kulikov, V. P. (2014). Russkaya aviatsiya v Piervoi mirovoi voinie [Russian aviation in First World War]. Moscow: Rusavia [in Russian].

Maslov, M. (2021). Russkie samolety Pervoj mirovoj: krylya Rossijskoj imperii [Russian aircraft of the First World War: wings of the Russian Empire]. Moscow: Yauza, Eksmo [in Russian].

Maslov, M., & Kulikov, V. (1998). “Lebed’ XII i drugiye Albatrosy V. A. Lebedeva [“Lebed’ XII and other Albatrosses of V. A. Lebedev]. Aviatsiya i vriemia – Aviation and Time, 3, 3–12 [in Russian].

Mikheev, V. R., & Katyshev, G. I. (2003). Sikorskyi [Sikorsky]. St Petersburg: Polytechnika [in Russian].

Mikheev, V. R. (1994). Sikorskyi S-16. Russkiy skaut [Sikorsky S-16. Russian Scout]. Moscow: Gonchar, Polygon [in Russian].

Mukhin, M. Y. (2022, April). “Industrial Revolution” as an Element of the Soviet Project (Based on the Materials of the Soviet Aviation Industry). Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 92(1), 60‒69. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1019331622070097.

O’Neil M. (2002). The Soviet Air Force, 1917‒1991 In R. Higham & F. W. Kagan (Eds.), The Military History of the Soviet Union (pp. 153‒168). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230108219_10.

Petrov, G. F. (2000). Gidrosamoloty i ekranoplany Rossii [Seaplanes and ekranoplans of Russia]. Moscow: Rusavia [in Russian].

Rossiyskiy Gosudarstvennyy Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Arkhiv – Russian State Military Historical Archive. Fund 493: Upravleniye voyennogo vozdushnogo flota. 1891‒1919 gg. [Directorate of the Military Air Fleet 1891‒1919].

Rossiyskiy Gosudarstvennyy Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Arkhiv – Russian State Military Historical Archive. Fund 802: Glavnoye voyenno-tekhnicheskoye upravleniye 1891‒1918 gg. [Main Military Technical Directorate 1891‒1918].

Rossiyskiy Gosudarstvennyy Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Arkhiv – Russian State Military Historical Archive. Fund 2008: Polevoye upravleniye aviatsii i vozdukhoplavaniya. 1914‒1918 gg. [Field Directorate of Aviation and Aeronautics 1914‒1918].

Savin, V. S. (1995). Aviatsiya v Ukraine. Ocherki istorii [Aviation in Ukraine. History essays]. Kharkiv: Osnova [in Russian].

Shavrov, V. B. (1978). Istoriya konstryktsyi samoliotov v SSSR do 1938 g. [The history of aircraft designs in the USSR until 1938]. Moscow: Mashinostroenie [in Russian].

Soboliev, D. A. (Ed.) (2011). Istoriya otechestvennoy aviapromyshlennosti. Seriynoye samoletostroyeniye 1910‒2010 [History of the domestic aviation industry. Serial aircraft building 1910‒2010]. Moscow: Rusavia [in Russian].

Stamper, G. L. (2000, January). The Sikorsky S-16 and Russian Aviation during the Great War. War in History, 7(1), 65‒81. https://doi.org/10.1177/096834450000700104.


Abstract views: 91
PDF Downloads: 116
Published
2022-12-16
How to Cite
Tkachuk , P., Kharuk, A., Soliar, I., & Skorych, L. (2022). Russian aviation industry and First World War challenges. History of Science and Technology, 12(2), 388-407. https://doi.org/10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-2-388-407