The contribution of Academician I. H. Aleksandrov to the development of national hydraulic engineering (on the example of scientific and engineering approaches to irrigation problems in the Turkestan region)
History of science and technologies as a branch of scientific knowledge is aimed at studying the most significant ideas of prominent scientists and practitioners and their influence on the world science development and the technologies’ advancing. In the opinion of the authors of the article, one of such figures of the early twentieth century is Academician I. H. Aleksandrov. Historical and scientific analysis of life and activity of I. H. Aleksandrov as a scientific theoretician, engineer, a science organizer is of high topicality due to the scale and versatility of his scientific contribution. Scientific creative work of I. H. Aleksandrov can be divided into five main directions of development of science and technologies: hydraulic engineering, hydropower, geographic zoning, railway transport and irrigation. In the context of the development of hydraulic engineering and hydropower, I. H. Aleksandrov had world-class achievements that glorified national science. But till recent years I. H. Aleksandrov is mostly recognized as the designer and one of the constructors of the Dnipro hydroelectric power station near Zaporizhzhia (1927-1932) (he prepared a project and directed the construction of the largest hydroelectric power station in Europe at that time) or as a creator and developer of the methodology for economic zoning of the Soviet Union. Other achievements and ideas of Academician I. H. Aleksandrov are rarely mentioned in the scientific papers and researches. The article concludes that the breadth of scientific and technical interests of I. H. Aleksandrov was the result both of his individual abilities and of the thorough theoretical and practical training received by a young engineer I. H. Aleksandrov from the highly qualified teaching staff of the Moscow Higher Technical School and the Moscow Engineering School of the Office of the Ways of Communications. I. H. Aleksandrov’s gigantic working capability played an important role in his life as well. Great number of sources showed that occupying different positions, I. H. Aleksandrov participated in solving complex technical issues of contemporary epoch, and his scientific interests had always been in the context of the tasks of the engineering and science of his time. I. H. Aleksandrov initiated scientific discussions on the construction of ports and canals, in his work he contributed in every way to the development of home industry in general, and to hydraulic engineering in particular. The authors assert that the modern view on the scientific heritage of I. H. Aleksandrov in the context of the development of hydraulic engineering, hydropower and rail transport unambiguously acknowledges that in a concentrated-generalized form ideas, theories and concepts, put forward and scientifically grounded by Academician I. H. Aleksandrov almost a hundred years ago, even today contribute to the development of scientific and technological process.
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